Chinese Languages — History, Development, Classifications, and Fun Facts

Chinese Characters or Han Zi in Calligraphy of Zhao Mengfu (1254 — 1322)

Chinese Characters or Han Zi in Calligraphy of Zhao Mengfu (1254 — 1322) — Palace Museum (Photo by Dongmaiying)

 

Chinese Language, Mandarin, and Putonghua.

 

The Chinese Language includes all spoken systems that have been used in China, from the Neolithic Era to modern times, as well as countless regional dialects throughout history. 

 

Mandarin, in Chinese Putonghua, is the national language of China. 

 

Mandarin or Putonghua, also named Standard Chinese or Standard Northern Mandarin, is the language that most Chinese learn at schools, use in workplaces, and communicate with people from outside of their hometowns. 

 

The reason to set and popularize a national language, most importantly, is the complicated regional dialect systems in China, which have the same grammar and writing system (Chinese Characters or Hanzi) but very different pronunciations that make people from different places difficult, even impossible to understand each other. 

Unearthed Jade Seal of Prime Minister Wang Xijue (1534 — 1611) of the Ming Dynasty

Chinese on Jade Seal of Prime Minister Wang Xijue (1534 — 1611) of the Ming Dynasty — Suzhou Museum (Photo by Dongmaiying)

 

Brief Introduction to Chinese Dialects.

 

Due to the long history and difficulty in recording spoken languages, it is unclear exactly how many varieties of Chinese had been used throughout history.

Today, however, there are 10 main Dialects in China, and each one has several sub-dialects. 

 

  • Mandarin or Putonghua, the spoken dialect of most north and southwest of China. 

 

  • Jin, the dialect of Shanxi Province and nearby regions.

 

  • Wu, the dialect of Zhejiang Province, Shanghai City, and adjacent areas. 

 

  • Min, the dialect of Fujian, Hainan, Taiwan, and some nearby areas. 

 

  • Yue or Cantonese, the main dialect of Guangdong, Guangxi, Hong Kong, Macao, and some places of Hainan. 

 

  • Kejia or Hakka, the dialect of some parts of Guangdong, Fujian, Jiangxi, Taiwan, and Guangxi. 

 

  • Xiang, the dialect of Hunan Province.

 

  • Gan, the dialect of Jiangxi Province.

 

  • Hui, the dialect of Huizhou culture area, today's some parts of Anhui, Zhengjiang, and Jiangxi.

 

  • Ping, the dialect of part of Guangxi Province. 

The Scenery of Guilin in Guangxi Province

The Scenery of Guilin in Guangxi Province, Photo by Teng Bin.

Besides, among 55 minority groups in China, many ethnicities have their own language systems. 

 

To sum up, there are over 80 existing spoken languages and over 30 writing systems in China. 

 

Many Chinese could speak both their local dialect and Mandarin (or Putonghua). They would talk to their families and fellow townsmen using dialects, and speak Mandarin at school, work, and outside of their hometowns.

 

History and Evolution of Chinese Languages.

 

Throughout history, there are four stages in regard to the history and development of Chinese languages. 

 

Old Chinese, Archaic Chinese, or Shanggu Hanyu

 

Old Chinese or Archaic Chinese includes languages from the Shang Dynasty (1600 BC — 1046 BC) to the Jin Dynasty (266 — 420). 

 

From the earliest existing oracle inscriptions of the Shang Dynasty to bronze inscriptions of Zhou Dynasty (1046 BC — 256 BC), then the unification of language in Qin Dynasty (221 BC — 207 BC), and further development of the unified Han Empire (202 BC — 220 AD), Old Chinese or Archaic Chinese consistently inherited as the ancestor and the origin of all varieties of Chinese. 

 

During Jin Dynasty, many separatist regimes had risen and fallen, and those endless wars caused large-scale death and immigrations, which formed the Middle Chinese. 

Chinese Characters "Le Wei Yang" (Eternal Happiness) on Unearthed Eaves Tile of the Han Dynasty

Chinese Characters "Le Wei Yang" (Eternal Happiness) on Unearthed Eaves Tile of the Han Dynasty — Fujian Museum (Photo by Dongmaiying)

Middle Chinese or Zhonggu Hanyu

 

Middle Chinese or Zhonggu Hanyu is the language from Northern and Southern Dynasties (420 — 580) to Song Dynasty (960 — 1279). 

 

It is represented by Qieyun System, an ancient rhyme dictionary published during this period. 

 

During Song Dynasty, the economic and political center moved southward, while nomadic Liao (907 — 1125), Jurchen Jin (1115 — 1234), and Mongol ruled the northern parts of China, where experienced long time communication and fusions among different ethnic groups and formed the Old Mandarin. 

"Shou Jin Ti" Calligraphy (Mudan Shi) of Emperor Huizong

Calligraphy Work (Mudan Shi) of Emperor Huizong of Song (1082 — 1135) — Taipei Palace Museum

Old Mandarin or Jindai Hanyu

 

With the fall of Song and the establishment of the Mongol Yuan Dynasty (1271 — 1368), the northern dialects based on Old Mandarin were widespread nationwide.

 

The Yuan Empire and the successive Ming (1368 — 1644) and Qing (1636 — 1912) Dynasties, all chose Beijing as their capital city (except the early Ming Dynasty), where originated and gradually developed today's Standard Mandarin. 

Emperor Zhu Yuanzhang's Self Description, Wrote on the Painting "Lin Weiyan Fang Mu Tu" of Artist Li Gongling (1049 — 1106)

Ming's Founding Emperor Zhu Yuanzhang's Self Description, Written on the Painting "Lin Weiyan Fang Mu Tu" of Artist Li Gongling (1049 — 1106) — Palace Museum

Morden Chinese, Standard Chinese, or Xiandai Hanyu

 

Morden Chinese or Standard Chinese is the language of China since the early 20th century. 

 

It includes all existing dialects, the writing system (Chinese Characters or Hanzi), and the romanization system of Standard Chinese Mandarin, the Hanyu Pinyin or Pinyin. 

Pinyin and Hanzi of A Poem of Wang Wei (701 — 761).

Pinyin and Hanzi of A Poem of Wang Wei (701 — 761)

 

Recording Pronunciations of Chinese Languages — From Ancient Methods to Romanized Pinyin.

Recording Pronunciations of Chinese Languages in Old Times

 

In ancient times, there are two main ways to record the pronunciation of Chinese Characters:

 

  • Zhiyin — To use characters with similar pronunciation.

 

  • Fanqie — To use two characters, one with the same initial consonant and one with the same rest of the syllable, to indicate the pronunciation of a new Hanzi. 

 

Fanqie was the most influential method in history, which had been widely used from Han Dynasty (202 BC — 220 AD) to Qing Dynasty (1636 — 1912). 

Fanqie of Characters "Spring" and "Autumn"

Fanqie of Characters "Spring" and "Autumn"

Modernized Hanyu Pinyin

 

The fall of the Qing Empire after a series of big failures in wars made people search for ways to strengthen the country, including the Romanization of the Chinese language. 

 

People believe that the old methods were too complicated to increase the literacy rate, universalize education, and to better communicate with other countries. 

 

After decades of intense discussion, the Pinyin system was officially set and published in 1958, to record the pronunciations of Chinese Characters and to universalize Mandarin.

Pinyin Cards

Pinyin Cards, Picture from Xie Lingling.

Pinyin, the short name for Hanyu Pinyin or Chinese Phonetic Alphabets, is the romanization of Chinese Characters or Hanzi, based on the pronunciation of Standard Chinese Mandarin.

 

The Pinyin system has 23 initials (Shengmu), 39 finals (Yunmu), and 5 tones (Shengdiao). 

 

Generally, each Chinese Character or Hanzi has an initial, a final, and a tone to form the pronunciation. 

 

Besides recording pronunciation, today, the Pinyin system is also used to type Chinese characters as well. 

 

How Simple Are Chinese Language Grammars?

 

  • No verb conjugations in accordance with changing of personal pronouns and tenses.

 

  • Only using simple adverbial of time words to show tenses.

 

  • No plurals of nouns. 

 

  • No masculine and feminine forms.

 

  • No accusative cases for personal pronouns. 

 

  • No comparative changes for adjectives and adverbs.

 

Which Parts of Chinese Language Are Difficult to Learn?

 

  • Tones: One Pinyin syllable usually has four tones, and each tone has different Chinese characters and meanings.

 

  • Pronunciations: Some initials and finals in Pinyin are not easy to pronounce, even for some people from southern China, let alone non-native speakers. 

 

  • The Polyphonic Characters or Duoyin Zi: Some Chinese characters have more than one pronunciation, and each pronunciation has a different meaning. 

 

  • Classifiers or Liangci: 

 

In the Chinese language, nouns usually are used together with classifiers, generally as: 

 

demonstrative/number + classifier + noun.

 

Among hundreds of classifiers, each noun has one or a few fixed ones to collocate; some classifiers have positive or negative meanings as well. 

Classifiers for Different Nouns in the Chinese Language.

Classifiers for Different Nouns in the Chinese Language

  • Ancient Culture and Tradition: 

 

Today's Chinese language system still includes wide use of culture and tradition inherited from ancient history, including proverbs, idioms, poems, historic events, legends, and folklore stories. 

 

Understanding those background knowledge requires a certain amount of reading. 

 

  • Chinese Writing System:

 

Strokes and structures of Chinese Characters or Hanzi could be tricky for non-native speakers. 

Cyan Glaze Porcelain Bottle with Love Poem of the Tang Dynasty — Changsha Museum

Cyan Glaze Porcelain Bottle with Love Poem of the Tang Dynasty (618 — 907) — Changsha Museum (Photo by Dongmaiying)

 

Fun Facts About the Chinese Language.

 

  • Every Chinese Character or Hanzi is a morpheme, most of which has independent meanings.

 

  • Chinese Characters are monosyllabic. 

 

  • Disyllable words, which are usually formed by two morphemes, are the most frequently used words in Modern Chinese. 

 

  • The Chinese language is the most ancient language that is still in use today.

 

  • Chinese is the most widely spoken language in the world and is an official UN language. 

 

  • The use of homophonic characters is a fun part of Chinese culture.

 

Characters that have the same or similar pronunciations with Ominous words would be avoided to use in certain situations, especially in festivals or people's birthdays or weddings, such as Pear for "Separation", Four for "Death".

 

Characters that have the same or similar pronunciations with auspicious words are widely used as lucky patterns or symbols, such as Apple for "Safe and Sound",  Eight for "Wealth and Fortune".

 

Click to Read Chinese Writing System — Chinese Characters or Hanzi