Chinese Patterns — Ultimate Introduction to Origin, History, Meaning, Culture, and Utilization.
Pursuing beauty and good luck has been an important part of people's lives, from neolithic tribes to today's modern society.
Chinese Patterns, in daily utensils and ritual wares, in clothes and jewelry, are embodiments of traditional culture and aesthetics.
In history, the utilization of patterns and colors was quite strict, when some of them would exclusively be used by certain groups of people, based on social status, occupation, gender, age, etc.
Therefore, every Chinese pattern has its unique origin, story, and meaning.
Today, with restrictions lifted away, however, popular patterns inherited their traditional meanings, as brilliant representatives of cultural legacy, and beautiful wishes for auspicious lives.
All photos on this page are from Dongmaiying unless noted.
Jade Article of Liangzhu Culture (around 3300 BC — 2000 BC) with Decorative Patterns — Zhejiang Museum
12 Imperial Patterns on Emperors' Robes
The colors and positions of those patterns changed slightly in different dynasties, however, the content and essence had been well applied and inherited in millennium years.
Most importantly, the use of these patterns was extremely strict: Emperors of China (some dynasties included honorable prime ministers) would use 12 patterns; the lower social status, the fewer patterns one could wear.
Star (Xing Cheng)
Meaning people wearing these patterns have the responsibility to illuminate and enlighten all humankind.
Mountain (Qun Shan): Firm, Persistent, Steady.
Dragon (Loong): Mysterious, Changeable, Unpredictable.
Fire (Huo): Bright and Promising.
Colorful Flower and Bird (Hua Chong): Intelligent, Write Beautiful Articles.
Algae (Zao): Emerges from the filth and stays unstained, meaning characteristic of pure and noble.
Rice (Fen Mi): To Provide and Nurture.
Axe (Fu): To cut off negative aspects, to stay resolute and decisive.
A Special Ancient Embroidery (Fu): It looks like two bows back against each other, which means smart perceive, back away from evil, and face toward benign.
Tiger and Monkey (Zong Yi): A pair of ancient wine vessels in sacrifice ceremonies, meaning respect for the ancestors. The tiger represents power and dignity; the long tail monkey symbolizes wisdom, loyalty, and filial piety.
Patterns from Nature
Since the Neolithic era, people have begun to carve or paint patterns of natural elements to show respect and worship to grand nature, pray for blessing, or use them as decorations.
Cloud, thunder, vortex, mountain, water wave, and their evolved patterns have been frequently used, till today, as representatives of auspiciousness, promotion, happiness, wealth, etc.
The 3 Most Frequently Used Animals in History — Fish, Dragon, and Bird.
Among all animal patterns, fish, bird, and dragon are the three most ancient and frequently used, in history and today.
In the Neolithic era when primitive tribes lived and thrived near rivers, productive and vigorous fishes were their important food resources.
Pottery of Yangshao Culture (5000 BC — 3000 BC) Decorated with Fish Patterns — Taipei Museum of History
Gradually, fishes became totems of some tribes and were apotheosized as the animal that could communicate and connect the worlds of deity and human, and those well-cultivated ones would transform into dragons and fly to heaven.
Therefore, fish has been representative of success, productivity, strength, luck, and wealth, and widely used in different aspects of Chinese culture throughout history.
Great philosopher Confucius (about 551 BC — 479 BC) named his only son "Li" (meaning carp) and with courtesy name Boyu (meaning fish).
Moreover, many types of fish patterns were carved or painted in cultural relics from different dynasties.
Dragon or Loong is a mythical creature that has been respected as the totem of Chinese people and used to be the representative of emperors and their paramount authority.
Dragons are strong, powerful, righteous, and responsible, and had been exclusively used by royals in many dynasties.
Large numbers of different types of dragon patterns have developed through time, however, their popularity and auspicious meanings are inherited well for thousands of years.
Gold Kettle of the Ming Dynasty (1368 — 1644) Carved with Dragon Patterns — Capital Museum
Phoenix Bird Fenghuang
A mythical bird named Xuanniao was worshiped as the ancestor of a clan, whose descendants built the Shang Dynasty (1600 BC — 1046 BC).
Therefore, this mythical bird, in some versions later evolved as Fenghuang or Phoenix, was the totem of the Shang Empire.
The King of Birds Phoenix, in Chinese named Fengniao or Fenghuang, since then, has been the representative of beauty, luck, honor, power, empress, royal women, and brides.
Phoenix Shape Gold Decoration of the Ming Dynasty (1368 — 1644) — Nanjing Museum
Mythical Creatures from Ancient Legends
Inferior to the paramount dragons and phoenixes, there are many other auspicious and powerful mythical animals that have been widely used in Chinese patterns.