Chinese Philosophy

Chinese Philosophy is indigenous ideologies that had formed and developed in history, which mainly describe interpersonal relations. 

 

Schools

The Spring & Autumn and the Warring States Period in history (770 BC — 221 BC) was the most prosperous eras for Chinese philosophy.

 

Many great ideologists proposed and developed their ideas, some of which soon formed as influential schools. 

Taoism was formed after Lao Zi finished the masterpiece Tao Te Ching, which talks about the function of the whole universe and how humans should perfectly fit in. 

Key Words: Feel and Conform  

Important Figures: Lao Zi, Zhuang Zi

Founded by Confucius, an ideology that is in respect to self-cultivation and social ethics.   

Key Words: Benevolence and Hierarchy 

Important Figures: Mencius, Xun Zi, Dong Zhongshu, Zhu Xi, Wang Yangming

Established by Mo Zi, was more of a huge chivalrous organization that represents civilians, and values equality and ability. 

Key Words: Equal and Peace

An ideology that believes a well established legal system is the most efficient and best way to govern a country.

Key Words: Autocracy and Unification

Important Figures: Han Fei, Shang Yang, Qin Shi Huang

It combined the ideology of Yin and Yang, Five Elements (metal, wood, water, fire, and earth) and math, trying to explain natural phenomena and to predict the objective world. 

Key Words: Cosmology and Astronomy

Military Strategist

Represented by Sun Zi, the writer of The Art of War. It is a system with respect to the training of soldiers and tactics of wars, which includes a series of theories discussing how to win in battlefields. 

Key Words: Fight and Win

Important Figures: Wu Qi, Bai Qi

School of Name

This included some logicians and dialecticians, trying to discuss and figure out the difference between “Name” and “Fact” and their relations. 

Key Words: Logic and Speculation 

Political Strategist

They were the earliest Machiavellian diplomatists in Chinese history, who analyzed political circumstances and made strategies for kings, by all means, to reach their specific goals: to form or break national alliances, to save or attack other kingdoms.

Key Words: Lobby and Diplomacy

Important Figures: Fan Ju

 

Atheistic and Practical Chinese Philosophy

Most of those Chinese philosophical schools are atheistic or at least encourage people to stay away from celestial beings or ghosts. 

 

What they respect are hard-working, contributive ancestors, and those practical principles that make people, society, and their kingdom better. 

 

Therefore, these great philosophers all described what their ideal societies look like, how they function, and how decent people would study and behave. 

 

Development History of Chinese Philosophy

Dominant Ideology Schools

 

All of those Philosophical Schools were formed and popularized in the Spring & Autumn and the Warring States Period (770 BC — 221 BC). 

 

Afterward, the history of Chinese philosophy stepped into a stage when the ruling classes set an official ideology.

 

When Emperor Qin Shi Huang defeated other kingdoms and established the Qin Dynasty in the year 221 BC, he respected Legalism as the official, dominant ideology. 

 

Since 202 BC, Emperor Liu Bang had overthrown Empire Qin and built the Han Dynasty, Taoism was highly respected and implemented by the ruling class. 

 

In the year 134 BC, Emperor Wudi of Han accepted suggestions from Confucianist Dong Zhognshu and made Dong’s adjusted Confucianism as the dominant ideology of the Han Empire. In the meanwhile, other schools and their ideas were suppressed and excluded. 

 

Since then, the new Confucianism, which includes Great Unification, Divine Right of Kings, and Harmony Between Human & Nature, became the orthodox ideology for the next 2000 years in Chinese history.

Formation of the Taoism Religion 

 

Around the period (around 147 — 581) when the Han Dynasty declined, ended, and the whole of the nation was divided into several kingdoms, the ruling class was exclusively the aristocracy.

 

Therefore, many intelligent, well-educated people tried to stay away from politics and endless wars, while paying their attention to self-cultivation, self-release, and art. 

 

The Taoism Religion, which apotheosized Taoism Philosophy, absorbed theory from the School of Yin-Yang, and included a complete system of Alchemy and pursuit of immortal, was formed and popularized.

 

Soon, it became one of the most influential religions in Chinese culture. 

 

At the same time, Buddhism was imported and spread quickly. 

The Fusion of Confucianism, Taoism Religion and Buddhism 

 

After hundreds of years of separation and wars, the unified Sui (581 — 618) and Tang Dynasty (618 — 907) were established. 

 

During this period, the Imperial Examination was invented and widely applied, which allows intelligent people to participate in politics and join the ruling class because of their talent. 

 

In this unified, prosperous era, Confucianists were able to realize their political dreams. 

 

In the meantime, emperors of the Tang Dynasty respected Lao Zi (also named Li Er) as their honorable ancestor (since they have the same family Li) and the Taoism Religion as National Religion, while Empress Wu Zetian highly respected Buddhism. 

 

Since then, Confucianism, Taoism Religion, and Buddhism gradually fused.

New Stage of Confucianism 

 

In the Song Dynasty (960 — 1279), Taoism was still respected as the national religion; some of the emperors were quite enthusiasts. 

 

Then Confucianists during this period absorbed some theories that were in respect to the formation of the universe from Taoism Religion and Buddhism and opened up a new chapter of Confucianism. 

 

Great Philosopher Zhu Xi was the most influential one, whose New Confucianism was then respected as the official ideology, since the Yuan Dynasty (1271 — 1368). 

 

Until about 300 years later, Wang Yangming proposed the School of Mind, which challenged Zhu Xi’s theory. However, they were still the internal conflicts of Confucianism. 

 

Therefore, in the Yuan and Ming Dynasty (1271 — 1644), the official philosophy was new Confucianism, while the national religion was Taoism. 

 

Until the Qing Dynasty (1616 — 1912), Buddhism was respected as the national religion, while Taoism was suppressed by most of the Qing’s monarchs, except Emperor Ying Zhen.

 

However, Confucianism, which honors great unification and loyalty, still remained as official philosophy.

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