Tradition of China — National Etiquette
In the tradition of China, national etiquettes are the ceremonies of worshiping heaven, earth, mountains, ancestors, celestial, religious, etc.
The purposes of some routinely auspicious etiquettes were to pursue stable governance, well-being, harvest, and protection; others were praying for luck in regard to current occurrences, like drought, flood, disease, war, etc.
Feng Chan Rite in the Tradition of China
Among different types of auspicious ceremonies in the history of China, the most honorable one was the Rite of Feng Chan on Mount Tai, which some outstanding emperors did before, to show their exceptional power and achievement to the world.
Military etiquette in the history of China included military-related wars, parades, taxes, periodic hunting, instruction activities, and the definition of the border.
In ancient Chinese culture, there should be some ceremonies before the battle, usually the offering of sacrificial ceremonies to the heaven, earth, ancestors, Gods of War, and the ensign, on a day that was chosen through divination.
Offering sacrifices rites to the heaven meant to report the battle, under the name of heaven and justice; to the earth, meaning the battle was to protect the homeland and pray for protection; to the ancestors and Gods of War, was to inform the upcoming battle and pray for good luck.
In these rites, blood (usually animals) was always needed to sacrifice the ensign.
Afterward, an important pledge statement would be announced, to inform soldiers of the battle’s goal, reasons, and important rules, as well as to mobilize and encourage them for the upcoming war.
If a regime won, the emperor would send honorable prime ministers and nobles to welcome his army; sometimes emperors would do this in person.
Then there would be a big ceremony to inform the heaven, earth, and ancestors about the success.
Sometimes the victorious army would also dedicate slaves to the emperor.
Later, countless solemn awards and feasts of celebration will be held for these excellent generals and soldiers.
If they failed in a war, the army would return wearing mourning clothes, crying, and memorializing for the dead, as in a funeral ceremony.