Qing Dynasty — Empire of Extreme Centralization and Closure
What is Qing Dynasty?
Qing Dynasty (1636 — 1912) was the last feudal imperial dynasty in the ancient history of China, a unified empire established by minority Manchu, with Autocracy and closure policies, and big territory.
In the 276 years of the Qing Dynasty, 12 emperors had reigned the empire.
Facts about the Qing Dynasty
Most of the Emperors of the Qing Dynasty could speak Mandarin, Manchu, and Mongolia Languages.
Queen and imperial concubines of Qing were mostly selected from Manchu or Mongolian nobles; every one of them came from the Eight Banner System.
The Eight Banner System was regarding the privilege and management of Manchu people during Qing's reign:
Qing built the County of Manchu inside of many big cities, which were much better constructed, but isolated, in which the people of the Eight Banner Systems lived.
Manchu soldiers and their families lived in those counties; they didn’t need to work, but they had to practice and train to fight in wars.
They were not allowed to leave the counties far away, nor wear another style of clothes except their race, nor sell or rent their place to other civilians, even for one night.
Their daughters couldn't get engaged or married before participating in the emperors’ selection first.
With their population increasing dramatically, and they had never worked, while their military ability kept decreasing fast in peace, they became a huge burden for the whole country.
Until the last emperor of Qing abdicated the throne in the year 1912, those privileged counties were officially abolished.
Golden Box of the Qing Dynasty Decorated with Gems — Palace Museum (Photo by Dongmaiying)
Qing Dynasty had the largest scale and most frequent Literary Inquisitions. Tens of thousands of people were sentenced to death because of what they or their families had said or written.
Emperors of the Qing Dynasty had absolute honor and power. Officials could not criticize the emperor.
Qing Empire had signed the most numbers of unfair treaties with foreign countries: around 1175 pacts were signed during 1840 — 1912.
The last three emperors of the Qing Empire did not have any kids.
Danbo Jingcheng Dian in Mountain Resort Chengde, the Main Hall Where Emperors Held Meetings and Ceremonies, Photo from Official Site of Chengde.
Brief History of the Rise and Fall of the Qing Dynasty
Establishing of Empire Qing and Marching Across the Shanhai Pass
When the Ming Empire (1368 — 1644) was dealing with natural disasters, faction conflicts, and continuous refugee-peasant uprisings, a nomadic regime named Manchu was expanding and getting stronger in the northeast of China.
They soon established their kingdom and named it Qing.
When a refugee uprising army broke into Beijing City, Ming’s last emperor Zhu Youjian committed suicide. Then, Beijing was occupied by this refugee army, while General Wu Sangui was garrisoning in Shanhai Pass, an important military site on the Great Wall.
Qing then made an agreement with General Wu Sangui, in which Qing helps Wu defeat the refugee army and support another prince from the royal family to reestablish the Ming Dynasty in the south, while Wu cedes northern China to Qing.
Therefore, General Wu Sangui opened the gate of the Shanhai Pass and let the Manchu army march across the Great Wall.
They defeated the refugee army together, but Qing refused to follow the pact. The Qing army kept marching and occupied large numbers of cities in northern China.
Main Gate of the Shanhai Pass in Qinhuangdao City
Expanding and Unifying of the Qing Dynasty
In the following decades, the ruling class of the Qing Dynasty forced all the people to have the Manchu hairstyle (men should shave half of their heads and have a plait) and clothes.
Civilians fought intensely against this policy for over 40 years, and millions of people died because of refusing to follow this hairstyle.
In the meanwhile, those regimes of Ming loyalists in the south kept fighting and losing.
In the year 1683, the Kangxi Emperor conquered the last regimes of Ming in Taiwan, and rebellions in the northwest, then the whole of the nation was unified under his reign.
Exquisite Cloisonne Jars with Gilding Lidand Jade Pieces of the Qing Dynasty — Palace Museum (Photo by Dongmaiying)
Developing and Flourishing of the Qing Dynasty
Kangxi’s fourth son Yin Zhen, also honored as Yongzheng Emperor, was a remarkable monarch. He implemented a series of policies that had challenged the entire ruling class and lightened civilians' burdens.
Under his ruling period, the empire kept developing; people lived in peace and wealth again.
After Yongzheng Emperor passed away, he left his son a prosperous kingdom with wealthy civilians and little corruption.
Book Shape Lacquer Box of the Qing Dynasty — Shanghai Museum (Photo by Dongmaiying)
Gradually Backward Qing Dynasty
His son Hong Li, also honored as Qianlong emperor, however, abolished those policies that jeopardized the ruling class's benefit, implemented hundreds of large-scale Literary Inquisitions that had countless people executed, and destroyed tens of thousands of books that displeased the Manchu nobles.
Even the encyclopedia of technology named Tian Gong Kai Wu was also burnt down, only because the writer Song Yingxing was loyal to the former Ming Dynasty and had said something displeased the emperor of the Qing.
When the Qing Empire was implementing those cultural havocs and the centralization of power, the western world started the Industrial Revolution.
Therefore, during the 63 years of the Qianlong Emperor’s reign, the Qing Dynasty started to decline, as well as far lagged behind the western world.
Besides, he was the most luxurious emperor in the Qing Dynasty, who spent lots of money building fabulous palaces and traveling around the country.
When he passed away, he left for his son Yong Yan (Jiaqing Emperor) a big empire with an empty exchequer.
Exquisite Artifacts Produced During Qianlong Emperor's Reign (Photo by Dongmaiying)
Invasions, Unfair Treaties, and Struggles in Late Qing Dynasty
When Min Ning, also honored as Daoguang Emperor, became the sovereign, the Opium War outburst, and then followed by a series of invasions and the signing of unfair treaties.
In the meanwhile, rebel armies appeared nationwide, some of which even built their own kingdom.
Then the government of Qing started to search for reform. When Empress Dowager Cixi was in actual charge, the Self-Strengthening Movement was implemented and achieved certain progress.
Decades later, the Qing Empire encountered a big failure in the Sino - Japanese War. Then, Guangxu Emperor Zai Tian commanded the Reform Movement of 1898 but was failed soon.
Part of Court Painting "Forty Scenes of the Old Summer Palace" (Yuan Ming Yuan Si Shi Jing Tu Yong), by Artist Tang Dai and Shen Yuan in the Year 1744 — Bibliothèque Nationale de France
This Old Summer Palace was Burnt Down by British-French Allied Forces in the Year 1860.
Falling of the Qing Dynasty and Ending of the Feudal System
The Qing Empire kept trying new ways to recover their dignity and power, while other organizations that searched for paths of being strong and wealthy were formed all over the country too.
When Puyi ascended to the throne in the year 1909, his father served as the regent. They tried the Constitutional Monarchy, which still put the benefit and privilege of the Manchu aristocrats before everything.
Therefore, many uprising armies started to fight, trying to overthrow the Qing Empire. Many provinces claimed their independence soon.
In the year 1902, Pu Yi was forced to abdicate the throne and announce the ending of the Qing Dynasty.
Agate Bowl of the Qing Dynasty — Asian Art Museum of San Francisco (Photo by Dongmaiying)
Political Structure and Social Systems of the Qing Dynasty
About 14million to 40 million — 400 million — 348 million (begin - peak - end)
The Supreme Authority was the Deliberative Council of Manchu Aristocrats (1637 — 1791), and then the Grand Council of State (1729 —1911).
The Administrative Departments were the Six Ministries:
Ministry of Personnel: Appointment, Assessment, and Removal of Officers
Ministry of Revenue: Household Registration, Finance, and Tax
Ministry of Rites: Ceremony and Education
Ministry of National Defense: Military Affairs
Ministry of Justice: Law, Judiciary and Punishment
Ministry of Constructions: Design and Implementation of National Constructions