Qing Dynasty (1636 — 1912) 

— Extreme Centralization and Closure

12 Emperors —  276 Years

Forbidden Palace in Beijing City — Royal Palace of the Qing Dynasty

Facts about the Qing Dynasty

 

1  Most of Emperors of the Qing Dynasty could speak Mandarin, Manchu, and Mongolia Languages. 

2  Queen and imperial concubines of Qing were mostly selected from Manchu or Mongolia nobles; every one of them came from the Eight Banner System. 

 

3  The Eight Banner System was regarding the privilege and management of Manchu people during Qing's reign:

  • Qing built the County of Manchu inside of many big cities, which were much better constructed, but isolated, in which the people of the Eight Banner Systems lived.

  • Manchu soldiers and their families lived in those counties; they didn’t need to work, but they had to practice and train to fight in wars. 

 

  • They were not allowed to leave the counties far way, nor wear another style of clothes except their race, nor sell or rent their place to other civilians, even for one night. 

 

  • Their daughters couldn't get engaged or married before participating in the emperors’ selection first.

 

  • With their population increased dramatically, and they had never worked, while their military ability kept decreasing fast in peace, they became a huge burden for the whole country.

 

  • Until the last emperor of Qing abdicated the throne in the year 1912, those privileged counties were officially abolished.  

Golden Box of the Qing Dynasty Decorated with Gems — Palace Museum (Photo by Dongmaiying)

4  Qing Dynasty had the largest scale and most frequent Literary Inquisitions. Tens of thousands of people were sentenced to death because of what they or their family had said or written.

5 Qing Empire's emperor had the absolute honor and power. Officials could not criticize the emperor. 

6  Qing Empire had signed the most numbers of unfair treaties with foreign countries: around 1175 pacts were signed during 1840 — 1912. 

 

7 Many spectacular royal gardens were built in the Qing Dynasty, such as the Summer Palace, the Old Summer Palace, Mountain Resort Chengde, etc.

 

8  The last three emperors of the Qing Empire did not have any kids.  

Rosewood Furnitures of the Qing Dynasty Decorated with Mother-of-Pearls and Gems — Dayi Liushi Manorial Museum (Photo by Dongmaiying)

Brief History of the Qing Dynasty

Establishing of Empire Qing and Marching Across the Shanhai Pass

When the Ming Empire was dealing with natural disasters, partial conflicting and continuous refugee-peasant uprisings, a nomadic regime named Manchu was expanding and getting stronger on the northeast side of the Great Wall.

 

They soon established their kingdom and named it as Qing.

When a refugee uprising army broke into Beijing City, Ming’s last emperor Zhu Youjian committed suicide. Beijing City was occupied by this refugee army, while the Great Wall was garrisoned by General Wu Sangui

Qing then made an agreement with General Wu Sangui, in which Qing helps Wu defeat the refugee army and support another prince from the royal family to reestablish the Ming Dynasty in the south, while Wu cedes northern China to Qing. 

Therefore, General Wu Sangui opened the gate of the extremely important military stronghold (the Shanhai Pass) and let the Manchu army marched across the Great Wall.

 

They defeated the refugee army together, but Qing refused to follow the pact. The Qing’s army kept marching and occupied large numbers of cities in northern China. 

Weapons of the Qing Dynasty Decorated With Gems and Copper — Palace Museum (Photo by Dongmaiying)

​Moving of Capital City and Unifying of the Whole Nation

In the same year, Fu Lin also honored as Shunzhi Emperor moved to the Forbidden City in Beijing, and started Qing’s reign as a national regime.  

 

In the following decades, the ruling class of the Qing Dynasty forced all the people to have the Manchu hairstyle (men should shave half of their heads and have a plait) and clothes. 

 

Civilians fought intensely against this policy for over 40 years, and millions of people died because of refusing to follow this hairstyle.

In the meanwhile, those regimes of Ming loyalists in the south kept fighting and losing. 

In the year 1683, the Kangxi Emperor conquered the last regimes of Ming in Taiwan, and rebellions on the northwest, then the whole of the nation was unified under his reign. 

Exquisite cloisonne Jars with Gilding Lid, and Jade Pieces of the Qing Dynasty — Palace Museum (Photo by Dongmaiying)

Developing and Flourishing of the Qing Dynasty

Kangxi’s fourth son Ying Zhen, also honored as Yongzheng Emperor, was a remarkable monarch. He implemented a series of policies that had challenged the entire ruling class and lightened civilians' burdens.

Under his ruling period, the empire kept developing; people lived in peace and wealth again. 

After Yongzheng Emperor passed away, he gave his son a prosperous kingdom with wealthy people and little corruption. 

Book Shape Lacquer Box of the Qing Dynasty — Shanghai Museum (Photo by Dongmaiying)

Gradually Backward Qing Dynasty 

His son Hong Li, also honored as Qianlong emperor, however, abolished those policies that jeopardized the ruling class' benefit, implemented hundreds of large scale Literary Inquisitions that had countless people executed, and destroyed tens of thousands of books that displeased the Manchu nobles. 

Even the encyclopedia of technology named Tian Gong Kai Wu was also burnt down, only because the writer Song Yingxing was loyal to the former Ming Dynasty and had said something displeased the emperor of the Qing. 

 

When the Qing Empire was implementing those cultural havocs and the centralization of power, the western world already started the Industrial Revolution. 

Therefore, in the 63 years of the Qianlong Emperor’s reign, the Qing Dynasty started to decline, as well as far lagged behind the western world.

Besides, he was the most luxurious emperor in the Qing Dynasty, who spent lots of money building fabulous palaces and traveling around the country.

 

When he passed away, he left for his son Yong Yan (Jiaqing Emperor) a big empire with an empty exchequer.

Exquisite Artifacts Produced During Qianlong Emperor's Reign  (Photo by Dongmaiying)

Endless Invasions, Unfair Treaties, and Struggles

When Min Ning, also honored as Daoguang Emperor, became the sovereign, the Opium War happened, and then followed by a series of invasions and signing of unfair treaties. 

In the meanwhile, rebel armies appeared nationwide, some of which even built their own kingdom. 

Then the government of Qing started to search for reform. When Empress Ci Xi was in actual charge, the Self-Strengthening Movement was implemented and brought certain development. 

Decades later, the Qing Empire encountered a big failure in the Sino - Japanese War. Then, Guangxu Emperor Zai Tian commanded the Reform Movement of 1898, but was failed soon. 

Part of Court Painting "Forty Scenes of the Old Summer Palace" (Yuan Ming Yuan Si Shi Jing Tu Yong), by Artist Tang Dai and Shen Yuan in the Year 1744 — Bibliothèque Nationale de France 

This Old Summer Palace was Burnt Down by British-French Allied Forces in the Year 1860.

Falling of the Qing Dynasty and Ending of the Feudal System

The Qing Empire kept trying new ways to recover their dignity and power, while other organizations that searched for paths of being strong and wealthy were formed all over the country too. 

When Pu Yi ascended to the throne in the year 1909, his father served as the regent. They tried the Constitutional Monarchy, which still put the benefit and privilege of the Manchu aristocrats before everything. 

Therefore, many uprising armies started to fight, trying to overthrow the Qing Empire. Many provinces claimed their independence soon. 

In the year 1902, Pu Yi was forced to abdicate the throne and announce the ending of the Qing Dynasty. 

Agate Bowl of the Qing Dynasty — Asian Art Museum of San Francisco (Photo by Dongmaiying)

Systems of the Qing Dynasty

 

Population:

 

About 14million to 40 million — 400 million — 348 million (begin - peak - end)

 

Political System:

  • The Supreme Authority was the Deliberative Council of Manchu Aristocrats (1637 — 1791), and then the Grand Council of State (1729 —1911).

 

  • The Administrative Departments were the Six Ministries: 

 

Ministry of Personnel: Appointment, Assessment, and Removal of Officers 

Ministry of Revenue: Household Registration, Finance, and Tax

Ministry of Rites: Ceremony and Education

Ministry of National Defense: Military Affairs 

Ministry of Justice: Law, Judiciary and Punishment

Ministry of Constructions: Design and Implementation of National Constructions

Exquisite Porcelains of the Qing Dynasty  (Photo by Dongmaiying)

Official Selection System: 

 

  • Manchu nobles obtained the center of the power and paramount of privileges in the ruling class. 

 

  • Imperial Examination also had been implemented every year.

 

  • However, Manchu people participated in their Imperial Exam, which was much easier. They also obtained paramount privileges in assigning positions and obtaining power. 

Tax:

 

  • The tax was paid by money, the number was based on how many lands one owned, instead of the number of people.

 

  • The Capitation tax was officially abolished. 

 

  • Everyone in the Eight Banner System was exempt from paying taxes.

Copper Currency of the Qing Dynasty

Military Service:

  • Eight Banner System, which was originally consisted of Manchu Soldiers led by their nobles.

 

The nomadic people worked as farmers in the peace era, while fought as warriors in war times.

 

  • After Manchu established the Qing Dynasty and occupied the whole of the nation, the original Manchu soldiers became nobles and were sent to different places to be in charge of security or protect borders. 

 

  • Decades later, the Mongolia army and Han army were established too, though the Manchu army still maintained many of their privileges. 

 

  • Until the late Qing Dynasty, many private forces established by Han officials were flourishing and took the responsibility of defending the country. 

 

Land System:

 

  • Private Ownership of Land

Exquisite Artifacts of the Qing Dynasty

Photo by Museum Photographer Dongmaiying