top of page

Chinese Mountains — Magnificent Cultural Landscapes

Compared to humans, mountains are magnificent and eternal, believed to be paths to heaven or the residence of different deities in ancient times.


They have accumulated countless folklore and have been visited and eulogized by numerous people throughout history. 

In addition to their amazing natural scenes, grand Chinese mountains are essential cultural landscapes with significant historical and cultural values, beautiful legends, notable buildings, cultural relics, and fascinating stories.

kunlun mountains.jpg

Kunlun Mountains — Cradle of All Mountains in China



Kunlun is believed to be the origin of all mountains in China, the Sacred Land of All deities, and the most important mountain in Chinese Mythology.


Alias: Kunlun Xu, Mount of Jade, Kunlun Qiu.


Location: Qinghai, Tibet, and Xinjiang Provinces, Northwest of China. 


Average Elevation: 5500 — 6000 meters above sea level.


Highest Peak: Gong Ge Er (or Kongkoerh) 7719 meters. 

Deity and Legend:


  • Mythical Animals Lu Wu is in charge of all mythical creatures and seasons.

  • Creation Gods Fu Xi and Nv Wa lived in the Kunlun Mountains, where they created humans, observed nature, and learned basic agricultural knowledge. 

  • Sacred Dojo of The Primeval Lord of Heaven (Yuan Shi Tian Zun), one of the most sacred immortals in the Taoism Religion.


Related History and People:


  • Ji Man (1026 BC — 922 BC), the King Mu of Zhou, visited the Deity Xiwangmu in the Kunlun Mountains.


  • Jiang Ziya (1156 BC — 1017 BC) used to learn military and strategy there, according to some ancient legends.  



Tourist Attractions:


  • Spectacular lakes, rivers, thermals, and springs never got frozen.

  • Caves and temples that hermits and Taoists live and practice.

  • Magnificent snow mountain ranges and glaciers, most of which are not accessible to ordinary people.

Read More About the Kunlun Mountains

Mount Tai.jpg

Mount Tai


Mount Tai has the most significant political and cultural value in history and culture among all Chinese mountains. 


It is where most exceptional emperors in Chinese History held the Feng Shan (a grand worship ceremony) and is the hometown of Confucius. 


It is believed to connect heaven, the earth, and the Three Worlds (divine being, human, and ghost) and is the border of Yin and Yang.


Alias: East Mount Tai, Tai Mountains, Tai Shan, Dai Shan.


Location: Shandong Province, East of China.


Elevation: 1545 meters.


Deity and Legend:


  • Mount Tai is believed to be the incarnation of the Chinese Creation God Pan Gu’s head. 


  • Dongyue the Great is the deity of Mount Tai, who is in charge of people’s life and death, fate, and justice of the whole world.


  • Bi Xia Yuan Jun, an influential goddess of the Taoism religion, is believed to protect decent people with safety, fortune, blessed marriage, and happy children.  


Related History and People:



  • Famous figures that had written articles appreciating Mount Tai: Confucius (551 BC — 479 BC), Mencius (372 BC — 289 BC), Li Bai (701 — 762), Yan Zhenqing (709 — 785), etc. 


Tourist Attractions: 

  • Stone Carvings of important historical events and poems of famous scholars.

  • Ancient Temples, Painted Sculptures of Deities of Mount Tai.

  • Natural Scene Performance about the ancient Worship Ceremony.

  • Spectacular natural scenery.

Read More Mount Tai and Feng Shan Ceremony

mount hua.jpg

Mount Hua


Mount Hua is one of the steepest mountains in China and the sacred place of the Taoism Religion. 


Even though it is located in the earliest settlement of ancient Chinese and has been documented and visited by many famous monarchs, few people reached the top before the 7th century. 


Therefore, many emperors visited and worshiped Mount Hua, but only at the foot of the mountains because of the precipitous roads. 


Gradually, some Taoists built narrow paths alongside the cliff of Mount Hua, using nails and wooden planks. That way, they could stay and practice Taoism here, on where divine mountain where many immortals are believed to live. 


Since then, Mount Hua has become a Taoism mountain.


Alias: West Mount Hua, Hua Mountains, Hua Shan, Mountain of Lotus.


Location: Shaanxi Province, Middle of China.


Elevation: 2155 meters.


Deity and Legend:



  • Xiyue the Great, deity of Mount Hua, is in charge of rain, river, lake, treasure, metal, and birds. 


  • Taoism Deity Tai Shang Lao Jun did alchemy, using water from a mysterious lake on top of the highest peak.  


Tourist Attractions:

  • Ancient, historical Taoist Temples.

  • Around 700 years old stone and wooden paths are alongside the cliffs.

  • Stone Carvings of important famous historical figures.

  • Giant ancient Chinese Characters carved on precipitous cliffs, with a mysterious origin and the impossibility to implement.

  • Ancient stone houses and caves where hermits used to live and practice Taoism.

  • An everlasting lake on top of the highest south peak, where deities used to do alchemy in some legends.


  • Beautiful natural scenery.

Read More About Mount Hua

Mount Heng in Shanxi.jpg

Mount Heng North


Mount Heng North is a famous mountain in China that represents the Convergence of Three Philosophical Schools


Over 1500-year-old temples built along cliffs have statues of the masters of Taoism, Confucianism, and Buddhism enshrined inside for centuries. 


Mount Heng North is surrounded or connected by some ancient, grand military passes, which left many ancient relics and ruins of wars in history. 


Alias: Northern Mount Heng, Heng Mountains, Heng Shan, Xuan Wu Mountains.


Location: Shanxi Province, Middle-North of China.


Elevation: 2426 meters.

Deity: Beiyue the Great, the deity of Mount Hua, is in charge of animals and nearby rivers and lakes.


Tourist Attractions:


  • Ancient Hanging Temples (Xuan Kong Si) along cliffs and other historical ones scattered in the beautiful mountains.

  • Military relics from ancient battlefields, such as passes, castles, beacons, Great Wall, etc.

  • Stone carving by famous historical figures.

  • The footprint left by the deity Zhang Guolao.

  • Stone caves of former hermits and Taoists.

  • Natural beautiful scenery. 

Read More About Mount Heng in Shanxi

Mount Heng in Hunan.jpg

Mount Heng South


In ancient Chinese Astrology, Mount Heng South corresponds to the star in charge of all beings’ lifespans; hence, the mountain has become the representative of longevity. 


Alias: Nan Shan, Heng Mountains, Heng Shan, Shou Shan, Mount of Longevity.


Location: Hunan Province, South of China.


Elevation: 1300 meters.




Zhu Rong, also respected as the God of Fire and Nanyue the Great, is the deity of Mount Heng South, who taught people to use fire and brought them good lives. The highest peak there is named after Zhu Rong. 


Related History and People:


  • Many famous scholars wrote poems appreciating Mount Heng, like Li Bai (701 — 762) and Emperor Zhao Ji (1082 — 1135). 


Tourist Attractions:


  • Shrine to worship the God of Fire Zhu Rong.

  • Ancient Taoist and Buddhist temples are scattered in the great mountains.

  • Confucianism academy.

  • Stone carving and articles written by historical figures.

  • The world's largest bronze ware Ding is carved with 100,000 Chinese characters representing 'longevity' from different dynasties and ethnic groups.


  • Temple Fair and Religious Activities on important holidays.

  • Beautiful natural scene.

Read More About Mount Heng in Hunan

Moungt Song.jpg

Mount Song


Mount Song is believed to be The Centre of Heaven and Earth in ancient Chinese culture, where ancient Chinese built the oldest observatory to measure sun shadows and decide the location of the capital city of the Western Zhou Dynasty (1046 BC — 771 BC).


Today, it is a grand Geopark with valuable historical building complexes, of which the most ancient building dates back to nearly 2000 years ago.


Besides, ancient Taoism temples, the Confucianism Academy, the Shaolin Monastery, a famous Chan Buddhist temple, and the Kung Fu Center are all scattered on Mount Song. 


Alias: Chong Gao, Chong Shan, Song Mountains, Song Shan, Wai Fang, Central Sacred Mountain.


Location: Henan Province, Middle of China.


Elevation: 1512 meters.

Deity: Zhongyue the Great, the deity of Mount Song, is in charge of agriculture and all landscapes.


Related History and People:


  • Emperor Wu of Han visited here and named three ancient Cypress Trees as Generals in the year 110 BC.

Tourist Attractions:


  • Historical Monuments, "The Centre of Heaven and Earth", include a series of buildings of Taoism, Buddhism, Confucianism, and ancient Science.

  • Over 700 years old Astronomical Observatory.

  • Stone carvings created by exceptional calligraphers and scholars throughout history.

  • The oldest (over 4500 years) Cypress Trees were entitled "Generals" by Emperor Wudi of Han.

  • Beautiful natural scenery. 

Read More About Mount Song

Wudang Mountain.jpg

Wudang Mountains

Wudang Mountains had been the royal Taoism place of the Ming Dynasty (1368 — 1644); with substantial support from emperors, the building complexes of Wudang hold great artistic and architectural values.


Today, it is a sacred land of the Taoism Religion, a National Geopark with spectacular natural scenery, and the center of Wudang Kung Fu.


Alias: Mount Wudang, Wu Dang Shan, Tai He, Xie Luo, Xian Shi.


Location: Hubei Province, Middle-South of China. 


Elevation: 1612 meters.


Deity: Zhen Wu Da Di, also respected as Xuan Wu Da Di, an honorable Taoism deity who is in charge of the Northern Land, the Water, and the Military. 


Related History and People:


  • Over 2000 years ago, many hermits and Taoists lived and practiced on Mount Wudang.



  • Emperor Zhu Di (1360 — 1424) commanded the construction of a series of Taoism temples, entitled them the Imperial Temples, and respected the Wudang Mountains as the most sacred place in the Ming Dynasty.


Tourist Attractions:


  • Ancient Taoism buildings from different dynasties.

  • Grand activities of Taoism Religion on important days.

  • China's earliest copper-wooden architecture is on the top of the mountain.

  • Beautiful natural scenes.

Read More About the Wudang Mountains


Zhangjiajie National Forest Park and Tianmen Mountains


Zhangjiajie National Forest Park, a World Geopark with large numbers of plant and animal species, is famous for its thousands of unique quartzite sandstone pillars and Karst landscape nearby.

Alias: Wu Ling Yuan, Tian Men Shan, Da Yong, Yun Meng, Dream of Clouds, Song Liang, Yu Ping, Fang Hu.


Location: Hunan Province, South of China.


Elevation: 1519 meters.


Tourist Attractions:


  • The world’s highest natural stone bridge connects two peaks.

  • Grand Karst Caves.

  • Ancient wooden plank road.

  • Activities and culture of Ethic Group Tu Jia Zu.

  • The natural stone cave - Heaven’s Gate.

  • World’s longest cableway and highest outdoor elevator.

  • Daring glassing skywalk and plank among beautiful mountains.

  • Extraordinary natural scenes.

Read More About Zhangjiajie and Tianmen Mountains

Mount Lu.jpg

Mount Lu


Mount Lu is a place of multiple ideologies, with ancient buildings of Taoism, Confucianism, Buddhism, Roman Catholicism, Christianity, and Islam scattered in the beautiful mountains.


Alias: Lushan Mountain, Kuang Shan, Kuang Lu.


Location: Jiangxi Province, South of China.


Elevation: 1474 meters.


Deity: Lv Dongbin used to live and practice Taoism on Mount Lu.


Related History and People:


  • The name of Mount Lu was officially set in the Records of Great Historian by Sima Qian (145 BC — ?).

  • Many famous scholars, such as Tao Yuanming, Gu Kaizhi, Li Bai, Bai Juyi, and Su Shi, used to live on Mount Lu, where they left many masterpieces appreciating beautiful views here, including poems, articles, stone carvings, paintings, etc. 

  • Zhu Xi (1130 — 1200) managed and taught in the famous Confucianism Academy Bai Lu Dong in Mount Lu.


Tourist Attractions:


  • Ancient religious buildings and Confucianism Academy.

  • Five peaks look like five wisdom scholars sitting together.

  • Magnificent waterfalls, lakes, and rivers.

  • Botany Garden.

Read More Mount Lu

Huangshan Mountain.jpg

Huangshan Mountain


Huangshan Mountain, or Yellow Mountain, is a beautiful UNESCO World Cultural and Natural Heritage and Geopark.


Named after the Yellow Emperor, the cultural hero and ancestor of the Chinese Han people, Huangshan is a magnificent landscape with exceptional scenic views and cultural attractions.


It holds significant influence, having been praised in tens of thousands of articles, poems, and paintings throughout history. 


Alias: Mount Huang, Huang Shan, Yi Shan, Yellow Mountain.


Location: Anhui Province, Middle-South of China.


Elevation: 1864 meters.


Related History and People:


  • Emperor Li Longji changed the mountain’s name from Yi Shan to Huangshan Mountains in 747.

Tourist Attractions:


  • Unique shaped pines and stones and their exciting legends.

  • Sea clouds flow among magnificent peaks and beautiful mountains.

  • Grand waterfalls, rivers, and hot springs.

  • Well-protected ancient villages at the foot of the Huangshan Mountains.

  • Ancient architecture like temples and plank roads along cliffs.

  • Stone carving and articles left by exceptional scholars.

Read More About Huangshan Mountain

Mount Wuyi.jpg

Mount Wuyi

Mount Wuyi, a UNESCO World Cultural and Natural Heritage, is famous for mysterious coffins on the cliff, millennial city ruins of ancient Minyue Culture, historical Confucianism academies,  Taoist and Buddhist temples, and spectacular natural views.


Alias: Wu Yi Shan, Wuyi Mountains.


Location: Jiangxi and Fujian Province, Southeast China. 


Elevation: 2158 meters. 


Deity: Wu Yi Jun, a Taoism immortal who protects local habitats.


Tourist Attractions:


  • Danxia Landform and other extraordinary natural scenery.

  • Ancient Taoist and Buddhist buildings are scattered on great mountains.

  • Ancient Confucianism colleges and stone carvings left by exceptional scholars.

  • Hanging coffins in cliffs from over 3750 years ago.

  • Ruins of the ancient city Han Cheng from about 2200 years ago.

Read More About Mount Wuyi

Mount Wutai by Tiejiache.jpg

Mount Wutai


Mount Wutai, the Dojo of Manjushri, is one of the world's five Buddhist holy lands, where Han Buddhism and Tibetan Buddhism have been thriving and coexisting in harmony for centuries. 

Besides, the ancient building complexes of Wutai are of great value; the oldest existing wooden structure building, constructed in 782, is located there.   


Alias: Wu Tai Shan, Wutai Mountains, Qing Liang Shan, Zi Fu Shan.


Location: Shanxi Province, Middle-North of China.


Elevation: 3058 meters.


Tourist Attractions:

  • Ancient temples, pagodas, sculptures, and paintings of Han and Tibetan Buddhism.

  • Grand Buddhist Activities on important festivals and occasions.

  • Beautiful natural views of great mountain ranges.

Read More About Mount Wutai

Mount Emei by chongqing xiaoya.jpg

Mount Emei


Mount Emei is one of the holiest Buddhist mountains and the dojo of Samantabhadra Bodhisattva (Puxian Pusa), with giant Golden Buddhas on the peak. 


Alias: E Mei Shan, Emei Mountains.


Location: Sichuan Province, Southwest China. 


Elevation: 3099 meters. 


Tourist Attractions:


  • Golden Buddhas on top of the great mountains and other valuable sculptures.

  • Ancient Buddhist temples and other buildings.

  • Natural wild monkeys.

  • The mysterious cave where divine beings meet is also the place where the God of Wealth used to live.

  • Spectacular natural scenes. 

Read More About Mount Emei

bottom of page