Fun Facts about Chinese Culture and History

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Mountains in China -- Magnificence, History & Cultural Values

Mountains in China are important Cultural landscapes, each of which has meaningful historical stories and beautiful legends in Chinese culture. 

Kunlun Mountains

 

 

Kunlun is believed the origin of all mountains in China, the Sacred Land of All deities, and the most important mountain in Chinese Mythology.

 

Alias: Kunlun Xu, Mount of Jade, Kunlun Qiu.

 

Location: Qinghai, Tibet and Xinjiang Provinces, Northwest of China. 

 

Average Elevation: 5500 — 6000 meters.

 

Highest Peak: Gong Ge Er (or Kongkoerh) 7719 meters. 

Deity and Legend:

 

  • Mythical Animals Lu Wu is in charge of all mythical creatures and seasons.

  • Creation Gods Fu Xi and Nv Wa lived in the Kunlun Mountains, where they created human, observed nature and learnt basic agricultural knowledge. 

  • Dojo of The Primeval Lord of Heaven (Yuan Shi Tian Zun), one of the most sacred immortals in the Taoism Religion.

 

Related History and People:

 

  • Ji Man (1026 BC — 922 BC), the King Mu of Zhou, visited the Deity Xi Wang Mu in the Kunlun Mountains.

 

  • Jiang Ziya (1156 BC — 1017 BC) used to learn military and strategy there, according to some ancient legends.  

 

 

Tourist Attraction:

 

  • Spectacular lakes, rivers, thermals, and spring that never got frozen.

  • Caves and temples that hermits and Taoists live and practice.

  • Magnificent snow mountains and glaciers, most of which are not accessible for normal people.

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Mount Tai

 

Mount Tai has the most significant political and cultural value. 

 

It is the place where most exceptional emperors in Chinese History to hold the Feng Chan (a grand worship ceremony), also is the hometown of Confucius. 

 

It is the mountain that believed connects the heaven, the earth, the Three Worlds (divine being, human and ghost), and is the border of Yin and Yang.

 

Alias: East Mount Tai, Tai Mountains, Tai Shan, Dai Shan.

 

Location: Shandong Province, East of China.

 

Elevation: 1545 meters.

 

Deity and Legend:

 

  • Mount Tai is believed the incarnation of Chinese Creation God Pan Gu’s head. 

 

  • Dongyue the Great is the deity of Mount Tai who is in charge of people’s life and death, fate, and justice of the whole world.

 

  • Bi Xia Yuan Jun, an influential goddess of the Taoism Religion, is believed to protect decent people with safety, fortune, blessed marriage and happy children.  

 

Related History and People:

 

 

  • Famous figures that had written articles appreciating Mount Tai: Confucius (551 BC — 479 BC), Mencius (372 BC — 289 BC), Li Bai (701 — 762), Yan Zhenqing (709 — 785), etc. 

 

Tourist Attraction

  • Stone Carvings of important historical event and poems of famous scholars.

  • Ancient Temples, Painted Sculptures of Deities of Mount Tai.

  • Natural Scene Performance about ancient Worship Ceremony.

  • Spectacular natural sceneries.

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Mount Hua

 

Mount Hua is one of the steepest mountains in China, and the sacred place of Taoism Religion. 

 

Even it is located in the earliest settlement of ancient Chinese, and had been documented and visited by many famous monarchs, few people reached the top before the 7th century. 

 

Therefore, many emperors visited and worshiped Mount Hua, but only at the foot of the mountains, because of the precipitous roads. 

 

Gradually, some Taoists built narrow paths alongside the steep cliff of Mount Hua, using nails and wooden planks. That way they could stay and practice Taoism here, in where divine mountain that many immortals are believed to live. 

 

Since then, Mount Hua has become a Taoism mountain.

 

Alias: West Mount Hua, Hua Mountains, Hua Shan, Mountain of Lotus.

 

Location: Shaanxi Province, Middle of China.

 

Elevation: 2155 meters.

 

Deity and Legend:

 

  • King Huang met many divine beings here around 5000 years ago. 

 

  • Xiyue the Great, deity of Mount Hua, is in charge of rain, river, lake, treasure, metal and birds. 

 

  • Taoism Deity Tai Shang Lao Jun did alchemy, using water from a mysterious lake on top of the highest peak.  

 

Tourist Attraction:

  • Ancient, historical Taoism Temples.

  • Around 700 years old stone and wooden paths alongside the steep cliffs.

  • Stone Carvings of important famous historical figures.

  • Huge ancient Chinese Characters carved on precipitous cliffs, with mysterious origin and the impossibility to implement.

  • Ancient stone houses and caves that hermits used to live and practice Taoism.

  • An everlasting lake on top of the highest peak, the place that deities used to do alchemy in some legends.

 

  • Beautiful natural sceneries.

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Mount Heng North

 

Mount Heng North is a famous representative of the Convergence of Three Philosophical Schools

 

Over 1500 years old temples that were built along cliffs, have statues of the masters of Taoism, Confucianism and Buddhism enshrining inside for centuries. 

 

Mount Heng North is surrounded or connected by some ancient, grand military passes, which left there many ancient relics and ruins of wars in the history. 

 

Alias: Northern Mount Heng, Heng Mountains, Heng Shan, Xuan Wu Mountains.

 

Location: Shanxi Province, Middle-North of China.

 

Elevation: 2426 meters.

Deity: Beiyue the Great, deity of Mount Hua, is in charge of animals and nearby rivers and lakes.

 

Tourist Attraction:

 

  • Ancient Hanging Temples (Xuan Kong Si) built along cliffs, and other historical ones scattering in the mountains.

  • Military relics from ancient battlefields, like pass, castle, beacon, Great Wall, etc.

  • Stone carving by famous historical figures.

  • Footprint left by deity Zhang Guolao.

  • Stone caves of former hermits and Taoists.

  • Attractive natural sceneries. 

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Mount Heng South

 

In ancient Chinese astrology, Mount Heng South correspond to the star that is in charge of all beings’ lifespan; hence, the mountain has become the representative of longevity. 

 

Alias: Nan Shan, Heng Mountains, Heng Shan, Shou Shan, Mount of Longevity.

 

Location: Hunan Province, South of China.

 

Elevation: 1300 meters.

 

Deity:

 

Zhu Rong, also respected as God of Fire and Nanyue the Great, is the deity of Mount Heng South, who taught people to use fire, and brought them good lives. The highest peak there is named after Zhu Rong. 

 

Related History and People:

 

  • Many famous scholars wrote poems appreciating Mount Heng, like Li Bai (701 — 762) and Emperor Zhao Ji (1082 — 1135), etc. 

 

Tourist Attraction:

 

  • Shrine to worship the God of Fire Zhu Rong.

  • Ancient Taoism and Buddhism temples scattered in the mountains.

  • Confucianism academy.

  • Stone carving and articles written by historical figures.

  • World’s biggest bronze ware Ding, carved with 100, 000 Chinese characters of “longevity” from different dynasties and ethnic groups.

  

  • Temple Fair and Religious Activities in big holidays.

  • Beautiful natural scene.

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Mount Song

 

Shaolin Monastery, a famous Chan Buddhist temple and Kung Fu center, is in Mount Song. 

 

Millennium Taoism temples and ancient Confucianism Academy are located there.

 

Alias: Chong Gao, Chong Shan, Song Mountains, Song Shan, Wai Fang, Central Sacred Mountain.

 

Location: Henan Province, Middle of China.

 

Elevation: 1512 meters.

Deity: Zhongyue the Great, deity of Mount Song, is in charge of agriculture and all landscapes.

 

Related History and People:

 

  • Emperor Wudi of Han visited here, and entitled three ancient Cypress Trees as Generals in the year 110 BC.

  • Empress Wu Zetian (624 — 705) held Feng Chan (a grand sacrifice ceremony) in Mount Song, and had worshipped here for several times.

Tourist Attraction:

 

  • Historic Monuments  “The Centre of Heaven and Earth”, which include a series of buildings of Taoism, Buddhism, Confucianism and ancient Science.

  • Over 700 years old Astronomical Observatory.

  • Stone Carving written by exceptional calligraphers and scholars in history.

  • The oldest (over 4500 years) Cypress Trees that were entitled as "Generals" by Emperor Wudi of Han.

  • Attractive natural sceneries. 

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Mount Wudang

Taoism Sacred Place.

Royal Taoism Temple of the Ming Dynasty (1368 — 1644).

Wu Dang Martial Art is one of the most famous Kung Fu sects in China.

 

Alias: Wudang Mountains, Wu Dang Shan, Tai He, Xie Luo, Xian Shi.

 

Location: Hubei Province, Middle-South of China. 

 

Elevation: 1612 meters.

 

Deity: Zhen Wu Da Di, also respected as Xuan Wu Da Di, an honorable Taoism deity who is in charge of the Northern Land, the Water, and Military. 

 

Related History and People:

 

  • Over 2000 years ago, many hermits and Taoists lived and practiced in Mount Wudang.

 

 

  • Emperor Zhu Di (1360 — 1424) commanded to construct a series of Taoism temples, entitled them the Imperial Temples, and respected Wudang Mountains the most sacred place in the Ming Dynasty.

 

Tourist Attraction:

 

  • Ancient Taoism buildings from different dynasties.

  • Grand activities of Taoism Religion on important days.

  • Chinese earliest copper-wooden architecture on the top of the mountain.

  • Attractive natural scenes.

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Zhangjiajie National Forest Park & Tianmen Mountains

 

UNESCO World Geopark and World Natural Heritage. 

 

Thousands of Quartz Sand Peaks in the mountains.

 

Ethnic culture of Tu Jia Zu.

Alias: Wu Ling Yuan, Tian Men Shan, Da Yong, Yun Meng, Dream of Clouds, Song Liang, Yu Ping, Fang Hu.

 

Location: Hunan Province, South of China.

 

Elevation: 1519 meters.

 

Tourist Attraction:

 

  • World’s highest natural stone bridge that connects two peaks.

  • Grand Karst Caves.

  • Ancient wooden plank road.

  • Activities and culture of Ethic Group Tu Jia Zu.

  • Natural stone cave named the Heaven’s Gate.

  • World’s longest cableway and highest outdoor elevator.

  • Daring glassing skywalk and plank among mountains.

  • Extraordinary natural scenes.

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Mount Lu

 

Mount Lu is a place of multi ideologies, where has ancient buildings of Taoism, Confucianism, Buddhism, Roman Catholic, Christianity and Islam scattering in the mountains.

 

Alias: Lushan Mountain, Kuang Shan, Kuang Lu.

 

Location: Jiangxi Province, South of China.

 

Elevation: 1474 meters.

 

Deity: Lv Dongbin used to live and practice Taoism in Mount Lu.

 

Related History and People:

 

  • The named of Mount Lu was officially set in the Records of Great Historian by Sima Qian (145 BC — ?).

  • Many famous scholars, such as Tao Yuanming, Gu Kaizhi, Li Bai, Bai Juyi and Su Shi, used to live in Mount Lu, when they left many masterpieces appreciating beautiful views here, include poems, articles, stone carvings, paintings, etc. 

  • Zhu Xi (1130 — 1200) had managed and taught in the famous Confucianism Academy named Bai Lu Dong in Mount Lu.

 

Tourist Attraction:

 

  • Ancient religious buildings and Confucianism Academy.

  • Five peaks look like five wisdom scholars sitting together.

  • Magnificent waterfalls, lakes and rivers.

  • Botany Garden.

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Huangshan Mountain

 

UNESCO World Cultural and Natural Heritage, World Geopark.

 

Alias: Mount Huang, Huang Shan, Yi Shan.

 

Location: Anhui Province, Middle-South of China.

 

Elevation: 1864 meters.

 

Related History and People:

 

  • Neolithic King Huang used to do alchemy in Mount Huang.

  • Emperor Li Longji changed the mountain’s name from Yi Shan to Huangshan Mountains in the year 747.

Tourist Attraction:

 

  • Special shaped pines and stones, and their interesting legends.

  • Sea clouds flowing among magnificent peaks.

  • Grand waterfalls, rivers and thermal spring.

  • Well protected ancient villages at the foot of Huangshan Mountains.

  • Ancient architectures, temples, and plank road along cliffs.

  • Stone carving and articles left by exceptional scholars.

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Mount Wuyi

Representative of convergence of Taoism, Confucianism, and Buddhism.

World Cultural and Natural Heritage.

 

Spectacular natural views include Danxia landform, peak, waterfall, river, etc. 

 

Cultural heritages contain ruins of an ancient city, and Hanging coffins in cliffs from about 2200 to 4000 years ago.

 

Alias: Wu Yi Shan, Wuyi Mountains.

 

Location: Jiangxi and Fujian Province, Southeast of China. 

 

Elevation: 2158 meters. 

 

Deity: Wu Yi Jun, a Taoism immortal that protects local habitants.

 

Tourist Attraction:

 

  • Danxia Landform and other extraordinary natural sceneries.

  • Ancient Taoism and Buddhism buildings.

  • Ancient Confucianism colleges and stone carvings left by exceptional scholars.

  • Hanging coffins in cliffs from over 3750 years ago.

  • Ruins of ancient city Han Cheng from about 2200 years ago.

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Mount Wutai

 

Buddhism Sacred Land, Dojo of Manjushri. 

Ancient temples of Han Buddhism and Tibetan Buddhism are scattering, where monks and lamas living and practicing. 

 

Alias: Wu Tai Shan, Wutai Mountains, Qing Liang Shan, Zi Fu Shan.

 

Location: Shanxi Province, Middle-North of China.

 

Elevation: 3058 meters.

 

Tourist Attraction

  • Ancient temples, pagodas, sculptures and paintings of Han and Tibetan Buddhism.

  • Grand Buddhist Activities on important festivals and occasions.

  • Beautiful natural views.

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Mount Emei

 

One of the greatest Buddhism mountains in China, the Dojo of Samantabhadra. 

 

Alias: E Mei Shan, Emei Mountains.

 

Location: Sichuan Province, Southwest of China. 

 

Elevation: 3099 meters. 

 

Tourist Attraction:

 

  • Golden Buddhas on top of the mountains and other valuable sculptures.

  • Ancient Buddhism temples and other buildings.

  • Natural wild monkeys.

  • Mysterious cave where divine beings meet, also believed as the place that the God of Wealth used to live.

  • Spectacular natural scenes. 

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