top of page

Jiaqing Emperor Yongyan — A Monarch Who Followed the Doctrine of the Golden Mean

Jiaqing Emperor (1760 — 1820), named Yongyan, revered as Emperor Renzong of Qing, was a compassionate and ambitious individual, and an ordinary monarch of the Qing Dynasty.


He had experienced the most flourishing peak epoch and witnessed the gradual decline of the Qing Empire.

Therefore, the Jiaqing Emperor spent most of his reign dealing with rising problems nationwide and recovering his kingdom's prosperity.

He was a diligent, qualified monarch to maintain his kingdom but was not innovative enough to make significant changes or solve social problems thoroughly.

Portrait of Jiaqing Emperor Yong Yan, By Court Painter of the Qing Dynasty

Portrait of Jiaqing Emperor Yongyan, By Court Painter of the Qing Dynasty — Palace Museum

The Talented and Polite Prince Yongyan

Yongyan was the 15th son of his father, Qianlong Emperor, who loved the young Yongyan but only treated him as a bright, adorable little prince. 

Half of his older brothers passed away with his growing up, while others were either too weak or disrespectful. Among them, Prince Yongyan was smart, brave, diligent, righteous, and benevolent.

Hence, when he was 13, Yongyan started to be considered and educated to be the heir of the Qing Empire.

Besides learning to be a good monarch, Prince Yongyan was also a big fan of the Beijing Opera.


He loved watching and directing performances, including selecting actors and music, setting stages, and guiding rehearses.  

A few decades later, Yongyan got the throne from his father when he was 36, but he achieved actual power until his father passed away three years later. 

Gem Decorated Gold Ceremonial Wine Cup (Jin Ou Yong Gu Bei) of the Qianlong Emperor

Gem Decorated Gold Ceremonial Wine Cup (Jin Ou Yong Gu Bei) of the Qianlong Emperor — Palace Museum (Photo by Dongmaiying)

The Diligent and Frugal Jiaqing Emperor

After Yongyan, now the Jiaqing Emperor obtained centralized power, he soon realized that his father had left him an empire with a fancy outfit but an empty and corrupted inside.

Sometimes, repairing a rotted empire was as difficult as building a new one. 

Unlike his father, Jiaqing Emperor was quite frugal and caring.


He finally stopped Literary Inquisitions and released many officials imprisoned during the Qianlong Emperor's reign because of their sayings.

From the day he ascended to the throne to the day he passed away, the Jiaqing Emperor worked tirelessly and rarely indulged in luxury events or tours.

Also, many documents recorded his caring behaviors and words to officials and civilians, especially the elders. 

New Year's Congratulatory Blessing Written by Jiaqing Emperor

New Year's Congratulatory Blessing Written by Jiaqing Emperor — Palace Museum

The Jiaqing Emperor's Fight Against Corruption


Jiaqing Emperor was another monarch in the history of China who fought against corruption during his entire ruling period.

As soon as his father passed away, he eliminated the most powerful prime minister Heshen (1750 — 1799). 

Heshen was a successful businessman and capitalist who built a whole financial empire, including countless shops nationwide and profitable, large-scale international trade.

Therefore, Heshen was the Qianlong Emperor’s favorite official for being excellent at earning money for the Office of Imperial Household.


Thanks to him, the Qianlong Emperor always had enough money to live his luxurious life in his late years.

Part of "Qianlong Emperor's Southern Inspection Tour" (Qianlong Nan Xun Tu), Painted by Xu Yang in 1751

Part of "Qianlong Emperor's Southern Inspection Tour" (Qianlong Nan Xun Tu), Described Luxurious Tours of Qianlong Emperor, Painted by Xu Yang in 1751 — National Museum of China

However, he also committed many illegal activities and was considered a treacherous, corrupt official.

As the wealthiest person in the 18th century, Heshen obtained property that equaled about 15 years of the Qing Empire’s revenue. 

But Heshen’s fall didn’t put an end to embezzlement.


In the following decades, the Jiaqing Emperor diligently dealt with corruption, like a fire extinguisher; however, his kind personality and his father’s administration system already set some unbeatable obstacles.

Consequently, he had never fundamentally solved corruption as his grandfather Yongzheng Emperor did before.

Jade Seal of Jiaqing Emperor

Jade Seal of Jiaqing Emperor with Dragon Decoration — Palace Museum

Endless Rebellions and Absurd Assassination Attempts


Another big problem the Jiaqing Emperor had been dealing with was the endless, large-scale rebellions.

Many types of uprisings frequently appeared in his father’s late years, and the situation had worsened since the first year of Jiaqing’s reign.

Like corrupted and incapable officials, new rebel armies kept rising while old ones were defeated. 

The most astonishing rebellion was instigated by a religion-oriented organization.

One day, when the Jiaqing Emperor was outside of Beijing and holding a hunting ceremony, around only 200 people, supported by some eunuch believers, rushed into the Forbidden City and almost occupied this big royal palace.

Forbidden Palace in Beijing City

Forbidden Palace in Beijing City — Royal Palace of the Qing Dynasty

His oldest son Min Ning fought bravely and led his soldiers to defeat the invaders.


Soon, this organization, defined as a "cult," perished cruelly.  

Then, the Jiaqing Emperor published an article on self-criticism, claiming he was responsible for those chaos and unprecedented, ridiculous incidents.

In a stable dynasty, having the royal palace invaded by 200 civilians was quite shocking; this was a farce that had never happened in the previous history of China.

Another slapstick was an unemployed civilian who freely walked into the Forbidden City and tried to assassinate the Jiaqing Emperor himself. 


However, hundreds of imperial guards stood aimlessly until the emperor's brother-in-law and three brave guards captured this assassin. 

Carved Porcelain Stand (Guan Jia) to Place Hats of Jiaqing Emperor

Carved Porcelain Stand (Guan Jia) to Place Hats of Jiaqing Emperor — National Museum of China

The Sudden Death of the Jiaqing Emperor

Jiaqing Emperor's sudden death was another mystery, which happened while living in the Chengde Mountain Resort.


There were many uncanny versions, including sickness, being struck by lightning, or being attacked by a mysterious fireball.  

He left no will regarding the heir, so his queen assisted his oldest son Min Ning, the prince who bravely protected the royal palace in a previous rebellion, to ascend to the throne.

Jiaqing Emperor was an ambitious, hard-working, and caring emperor stuck in a frame, even a cage his father and the system set for him.

Famille Rose Porcelain Cup Produced Under Jiaqing Emperor's Reign

Famille Rose Porcelain Cup Produced Under Jiaqing Emperor's Reign — Museum of Fine Arts, Boston (Photo by Dongmaiying)

He wanted to make his empire better but had been afraid of jumping out of the middle of the road.

Besides having stopped the Literary Inquisitions and fought against corruption, he followed most of his father’s systems and policies.

When one couldn’t think out of the frame, he probably couldn’t achieve more than this cage. 

Therefore, the Jiaqing Emperor didn’t make any noticeable improvements to his empire, though he had diligently implemented many repair works.

The Qing Empire kept rotting inside, while the fabulous outside kept fading away. 

Exquisitely Decorated Weave Fan Produced Under Jiaqing Emperor's Reign

Exquisitely Decorated Weave Fan Produced Under Jiaqing Emperor's Reign — Palace Museum (Photo by Dongmaiying)

bottom of page