Puyi — The Last Emperor of Qing Dynasty and Witness of the History

Puyi (1906 — 1967), respected as Xuantong Emperor, was the last emperor of both the Qing Dynasty and the history of China. 

From a toddler monarch to a puppet emperor, a prisoner, then a common civilian, he had witnessed many aspects of modern Chinese history.

Toddler Emperor Puyi of the Qing Dynasty

Empress Dowager Cixi (1835 — 1908), the most powerful person in the late Qing Dynasty, was displeased by the current childless Guangxu Emperor's (1871 — 1980) reformative policies. 

Hence, Cixi took the two-year-old Puyi (Guangxu Emperor’s nephew) away from his birth parent and nominated him as the heir of the Qing Empire. 

A few months later, when Cixi was very sick, she poisoned Guangxu Emperor to death and passed away the next day.

Afterward, Puyi ascended to the throne as Xuantong Emperor; his birth father Zaifeng, with Cixi’s approval, became the most powerful regent of the Qing Empire. 

However, at that time, the Qing Empire’s dominance already reached the sunset; rebel forces, from refugees and peasants to well-educated intellectuals, appeared in many places in China.

Painting of Empress Dowager Cixi, By Hubert Vos in 1905

Painting of Empress Dowager Cixi, By Hubert Vos in 1905 — Summer Palace

Ending of the Qing Dynasty and Abdication of the Throne

Three years later, the Revolution of 1911 (or Xinhai Revolution) broke out and quickly spread to the whole of China. The Qing’s army kept losing in the next two months.

Then, Puyi’s father was forced to resign as the regent, and soon Puyi announced abdication, as the legit emperor of this last feudal dynasty in the history of China.

The Republic of China (ROC), which was consisted of many half-independent warlords, was established in the year 1912.  

Puyi still had the right to live in the Forbidden City and take a certain amount of money from the government of the ROC; the Manchu nobles of Qing still hold some privileges and were respected.

Inside the palace, there was a complete system to serving Puyi as a real emperor, like in old times. He still lived a wealthy life and got educated here in the royal palace.

Until two years later, they were required to abolish feudal royal titles and change their nomadic clothes and hairstyle to modern ones. 

Forbidden Palace in Beijing City

Forbidden Palace in Beijing City — Royal Palace of the Qing Dynasty

The 11 Days of Puyi's Second Time of Being An Emperor

When he was 11 years old, a warlord occupied Beijing and supported Puyi to recover the Qing Empire.

However, 11 days later, another warlord defeated the restoration supporter and forced Puyi to announce the abdication for the second time. 

Afterward, Puyi continued his emperor’s lifestyle inside the royal palace and was able to meet his siblings and birth parents sometimes.

Since the Revolution of 1911, many people still haven't given up on restoring the Qing Empire, and Puyi had always been taught so.

He had been educated to be a good monarch and enjoyed the privileges of being one, though he had never tasted the real power or freedom.

When he was 15, his birth mother committed suicide, because Puyi had argued with a powerful empress dowager. 

He finally realized that his noble title and "power" were even not able to protect his mother.

Puyi in Court Dress

Puyi in Court Dress During His Second Time of Being An Emperor

Failed Escape Plan and Puyi's Modernization 

Puyi had a British teacher named Reginald Fleming Johnston (1874 — 1938) since he was 13, and had a good relationship with him. He learned English, math, and geography from this foreign teacher.

When Puyi grew older, he became unsatisfied with his awkward situation and wanted to escape out of the Forbidden City, or even study abroad, but most of the conservative nobles and other royal members didn’t allow him to do that.

So, Puyi and his oldest brother Pujie (1907 — 1994) made an escape plan. 

Firstly, they transported many extremely valuable paintings and other treasures outside of the Forbidden City secretly, and stored them in another house; most of them were soon disappeared after Japan arrived during World War Two.

Puyi's BSA Bike Imported From England

Puyi's BSA Bike Imported From England — Palace Museum

But right before Puyi got the chance to escape, he and his brother were found out, and this plan failed.  

Because of the influence of his foreign teacher, Puyi finally cut off his plait and recommended other nobles to do the same. Since then, this nomadic Manchu hairstyle finally disappeared in the history of China.

When he was 16, Puyi married a queen and an imperial concubine at the same time, according to the emperor’s wedding ceremony of the Qing Dynasty.

After the wedding, Puyi dismissed some eunuchs, trying to change the situation that many people kept stealing and selling treasures from the Forbidden City. 

Puyi's Wedding Ring, Carved with Quotes " Yun Zhi Jue Zhong"
Puyi's Wedding Ring, Carved with Quotes "Wei Jing Wei Yi"

Puyi's Wedding Ring, Carved with Quotes "Wei Jing Wei Yi, Yun Zhi Jue Zhong", From the Ancient "Book of Documents" (Shang Shu) that Finished Around 2500 to 3000 Years Ago — Palace Museum

Being Expelled Out of the Forbidden City

Two years later, Warlord Feng Yuxiang (1882 — 1948) initiated a coup and expelled Puyi out of the Forbidden City. 

Feng claimed that Puyi would get their protection only if he would give up all the privileges and become a civilian after.

Qing’s Manchu nobles refused, including Puyi himself.

Puyi then took as much treasure as he could and came to his father’s mansion; soon they escaped to another city and lived in a house in concession when he was still respected as an emperor.

Meanwhile, Puyi also got more chances to communicate with more foreign forces, most of whom were polite to him, but not quite interested in the restoration of the Qing Dynasty. 

Except for the Japanese, who showed Puyi huge sympathy, and the possibility to be helpful in Qing Empire’s restoration. Hence, Puyi became closer to them.

Puyi's Jade Seal, Carved with His Former Reign Title Xuantong

Puyi's Jade Seal, Carved with His Former Reign Title Xuantong — Palace Museum

Destruction of Mausoleums of Empire Qing's Monarchs

After Puyi was expelled from his royal palace, ROC ended long-time fights among warlords and organized a united government.

On the other side, Puyi was trying everything to restore his empire and its glory.

However, general Sun Dianying (1889 — 1947) led his army to open Qing’s late emperors’ graves and took away countless treasures.


Qianlong Emperor and Empress Dowager Cixi, the two most luxurious monarchs of Qing, had their fancy royal mausoleums ransacked and their skeletons dragged outside of their coffins.

Puyi and his loyal “officials” were quite angry and sad, they tried to appeal to the ROC’s government. 

In some gossips, Sun Dianying bribed many superior officials of the ROC, using those treasures that he stole from these mausoleums. 

Meanwhile, Sun Dianying claimed that he was a descendant of the great Marshal Sun Chengzong (1563 — 1638) of the Ming Dynasty; based on what they did to Sun Chengzhong and Ming’s civilians at the beginning of the Qing Dynasty, this was just karma. 

In the end, some people were investigated and imprisoned but ended up with nothing conclusive.

Empress Dowager Cixi's Mausoleum the Ding Dong Ling.

Empress Dowager Cixi's Mausoleum the Ding Dong Ling

Puyi's Third Time of Being A Puppet Monarch

When Puyi was 25, Japan invaded and occupied the northeast of China.

Then, Kenji Doihara assisted Puyi escaped to northeastward, where Puyi established another “country” named Manchukuo (1932 — 1945) with the help of the Japanese, which turned out was an illegal regime and Puyi was just a puppet monarch.

Puyi didn’t have much freedom there and was not allowed to make important decisions nor participate in politics. 

His queen Wanrong, a beautiful and well-educated noble-born girl, got the lunacy during this half captive period. 

His father, uncle, and his little brother refused to go to his new "country" to become a traitor. 

His imperial concubine Wenxiu (1909 — 1953) announced a divorce with him, who lived as a teacher since after.

They all stayed in other cities, though in poverty, rejected to work for the puppet government that was under the control of the Japanese.

Only his oldest brother Pujie, the one who helped him steal and transport valuable treasures out of the Forbidden City, came to this new “country” to support Puyi and married a Japanese wife. 

Puyi and Wanrong

Puyi and Wanrong

Miseries and Desperations In the Illegal Country

As a puppet "king", Puyi had no actual right in politics and never brought his people good lives.

Large numbers of laborers were cruelly murdered by Japanese invaders; countless innocent people were captured and used in inhuman experiments.

Many mass graves containing tens of thousands of bodies were found after the Japanese army left this area.

Civilians here were forced to accept enslaving education. 

People living in the best rice production area were forbidden to eat rice because the good food needed to be transported to the Japanese Battlefronts in World War Two. 

During this period, Puyi married two other “imperial concubines”.

Puyi Wearing "Manchukuo" Uniform

Puyi Wearing "Manchukuo" Uniform

One was named Tan (1920 — 1942), whom Puyi loved very much and spent some good times together. But Tan dead out of a sudden when she was only 22 after she got sick and having been "treated" by a Japanese doctor.

Puyi insisted that Tan was murdered by the Japanese because Tan was well educated and told him many of the Japanese’s cruel behaviors.

After Tan’s death, Puyi was “suggested” to marry a Japanese wife, but he refused firmly. Then, he chose a local young girl from a list that the Japanese offered. 

They got separated after Japan surrendered in 1945 and divorced in 1957.

Puyi’s Testifying at Tribunal as A War Criminal

When Japan kept losing in the Pacific and Southeast Asia battlefields, Puyi started to worry that the Japanese might kill him, in case he fell into the “wrong” hands.

So he tried his best to show his “loyalty” to the Japanese, who then decided to take Puyi with them back to Japan. 

Before that, Puyi announced his “abdication” for the third time.

However, right before they were about to leave China, Puyi got captured at the airport by Soviet Union soldiers.

This time, he was no longer an emperor or “king”; instead, he became a war criminal. 

Also, as a puppet "monarch" of the illegal Manchukuo that was built by the Japanese, Puyi was defined as a big traitor to the ROC government and Chinese people.

Puyi was aware of this, so he applied several times to stay in the Soviet Union, and had donated many treasures that he took along, but got no reply.

Soon, Puyi testified at the International Military Tribunal for the Far East for eight days and revealed some crimes that the Japanese committed (according to his memoirs, he didn’t say the things that he was involved in, in case he would be sentenced by Chinese people if he was sent back someday).

Based on his special status, Puyi was treated well during this period; he even didn’t need to participate in any labor activities. 

Puyi testifying at the International Military Tribunal for the Far East

Puyi testifying at the International Military Tribunal for the Far East

Puyi’s Captive Life in An Ironic City

A few years later, Puyi and his former followers were sent back to China and imprisoned, after the People's Republic of China (PRC) was established. 

Ironically, the city where Puyi was grounded, was the same one that his nomadic Manchurian ancestor Nurhaci (1559 — 1626) established their regime and started to fight against the Ming Dynasty.

Here in this city named Fushun, the first king of the Qing Dynasty rose and started his journey of building a huge empire; after three hundred years, the Qing’s last emperor served his time there.  

Puyi then started to learn to do everything on his own, such as laundry.

He, for the first time, clearly knew what exact crimes the Japanese did in the northeast of China, under the name of his “kingdom”. He also met many civilians who suffered a lot but fought bravely against the Japanese.

After hearing how ordinary people suffered under Puyi's “reign”, his former followers stopped talking to him and tried to isolate him. 

Puyi wrote his memoir during this period and donated the rest of his treasures, which were then put back in different museums.

He also met with all of his relatives who refused to work for the Japanese before. 

After nine-year captive life, Puyi and his brother Pujie were specially amnestied. 

Triple Jade Seals (Tianhuang San Lian Xi) of Qianlong Emperor

Triple Seals (Tianhuang San Lian Xi) of Qianlong Emperor that Carved Out of One Jade Stone, An Extremely Valuable Treasure that Puyi Had Been Carried WIth For Decades — Palace Museum

Commoner Puyi and His Late Years in Beijing

Then, Puyi went back to Beijing and met with his family members.

He lived in his hometown, for the first time, as a common person, freely, with no constraints, nor life and death moments.

Later, Puyi worked in a botanical garden and participated in writing historical materials in an organization. Afterward, he was nominated as a member of the Political Consultative Conference.

Many people tried to introduce women to him, but Puyi refused all of those former Manchu nobles. Instead, he married a civilian-born nurse named Li Shuxian (1925 — 1997) and spent the rest of his life with her.

In his later years, Puyi paid his last visit to the Forbidden City, when he bought a ticket like other people and served as a guide.

A few years later, he passed away old and sick and left no offsprings. 

Puyi and His Wife Li Shuxian

Puyi and His Wife Li Shuxian

What Happened to Puyi's Close Relatives

Puyi's father Zaifeng (1883 — 1951), the former regent of the Qing Empire, who refused to go to northeast China to work for the Japanese, passed away in his old palace.

His beautiful queen Wanrong (1906 — 1946) tried everything to escape from the “kingdom” that Puyi and the Japanese built, but failed. Later, she became insane and was imprisoned. After Japan surrendered in 1945, she was released but died in the next year; no one knew how and where she ended up.

His uncle Zaitao (1887 — 1970), the former prince and powerful minister of Qing, stopped contacting Puyi after having rejected to work for the Japanese.


After Japan occupied Beijing in World War Two, they offered Puyi's uncle to be the “mayor” of Beijing, but he firmly refused and lived a poverty life by selling stuff in a market. After PRC established, his uncle was assigned to work as a consultant in the army, and a member of the National People's Congress. 

Night Revels of Han Xizai (Part One), by Artist Gu Hongzhong of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms
Night Revels of Han Xizai (Part Two), by Artist Gu Hongzhong of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms

Night Revels of Han Xizai, Originally by Artist Gu Hongzhong of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms (907 — 979), and  Copied in the Song Dynasty (960 — 1279).
It Had Been Taken Out of Forbidden City by Puyi, and Years Later was Bought and Donated by Artist Zhang Daqian (1899 — 1983) — Palace Museum

Puyi's sisters took different careers, like educator, painter, file clerk in the Forbidden City, etc., and their kids are working in different occupations as well. 

His youngest brother Puren (1918 — 2015) dedicated his entire life to teaching and researching history.

Most of them recovered their nomadic Manchurian family names (many of Qing’s Manchurians changed their family name, trying to avoid being revenged against after the 1911 Revolution) and have been working diligently to support themselves, like other ordinary people.

They are one of the 55 minority groups in China now, and with a bigger name, the Chinese. 

Tang Tai Zong or Emperor Taizong Receiving the Tibetan (Tu Bo) Envoy, Painted by Politician/Artist Yan Liben (601 — 673)

Painting "Bu Nian Tu" that Describes Emperor Taizong of Tang Receiving the Tibetan (Tu Bo) Envoy, by Politician/Artist Yan Liben (601 — 673).
Puyi Had Took It Out of Forbidden City and Rewarded It to His Teacher. Years Later, it was Donated by the Owner — Palace Museum