Fun Facts about Chinese Culture and History

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Sun Tzu — Writer of the Art of War

Sun Wu (about 545 BC — 470 BC), courtesy name as Sun Changqing and respected as Sun Tzu or Sun Zi, was an accomplished general of the Kingdom Wu, and the writer of military masterpiece the Art of War.

Earliest Version of the Art of War, Unearthed from Yinqueshan Han Tomb (around 140 BC — 118 BC) — Shandong Museum

Noble Descendant Sun Tzu and His Early Life

Sun Tzu was born into a noble family, a descendent of famous King Shun

During the Spring and Autumn Period (770 BC — 476 BC), kingdoms kept competing and fighting, and many smaller states were annexed.

Stronger states, however, either kept expanding, or suffering from internal political conflicting, such as the State Qi that Sun Tzu’s family has been serving. 

After Sun Tzu grew up, the infighting of the State Qi was more intense, which was quite disappointing. Hence, he left the chaos, and started searching for another kingdom that could realize his political dreams.

On his way traveling around, he met a great friend named Wu Zixu (about 559 BC — 484 BC), who highly appreciated Sun Tzu’s talent. 

Therefore, Sun Tzu came to Kingdom Wu, where Wu Zixu was serving now.

Unearthed Bronze Weapon Ge with Inlaying Gold Patterns and Inscriptions (Wang Zi Yu Ge), Produced for the Current King of Wu — Shanxi Museum (Photo by Dongmaiying)

Meeting of Sun Tzu and the King of Wu

After Sun Tzu arrived Kingdom Wu, he lived in seclusion for a few years, when he wrote many articles in regard to military strategy and tactics. These are believed important sections of the Art of War. 

Later, He Lv (537 BC — 496 BC) became the King of Wu, and Wu Zixu was nominated as prime minister. Meanwhile, they decided to attack their neighbor country, the Kingdom Chu. 

Wu Zixu then recommended Sun Tzu to the King of Wu for seven times, until the king agreed to meet.

Sun Tzu presented his brilliant articles, which impressed the king and other officials.

 

However, King He Lv wondered that without real battlefield experiences, whether Sun Tzu was more than just a theorist. Hence, he organized a few hundreds of concubines and maids in his palace, and asked Sun Tzu to train them into an army.

Within a few days, surprisingly, Sun Tzu turned those delicate and inattentive women into a troop with combat effectiveness.

Afterwards, Sun Tzu was nominated as the commander of Kingdom Wu.

Unearthed Bronze Wine Scoop (Dou) of the Kingdom Chu — Jingzhou Museum (Photo by Dongmaiying)

Expanding of the Kingdom Wu

In the next decades, Sun Tzu and Wu Zixu together became almost invincible. 

After years of preparation, they finally won over the Kingdom Chu. Around 30,000 of Wu’s well trained soldiers, within about half a month, they defeated around 200,000 of Kingdom Chu’s warriors and occupied their capital city. 

Sun Tzu finally helped his friend Wu Zixu completed his vengeance, whose entire family were executed by the King of Chu. 

After King He Lv passed away, Sun Tzu and Wu Zixu kept serving the next King Fu Chai (? — 473 BC). 

King Fu Chai was an ambitious monarch in the beginning. He trusted Sun Tzu and Wu Zixu and, under the assistance of them, defeated their strong enemy the Kingdom Yue. 

Wu Zixu suggested King Fu Chai to execute Gou Jian (about 520 BC — 465 BC) the King of Yue, but other officials that took many bribes insisted otherwise. 

Later, a stunningly beautiful woman named Xi Shi was sent from the Kingdom Yue. 

Fu Chai fell in love with Xi Shi at the first sight, and soon released Gou Jian the King of Yue. 

Unearthed Spear of Fu Chai the King of Wu — Hubei Museum (Photo by Dongmaiying)

Sun Tzu’s Seclusion Life and Writing of the Art of War

Besides gorgeous Xi Shi, the Kingdom Yue also tribute a great deal of treasures to Kingdom Wu’s important officials that kept trying to alienate Wu Zixu and King Fu Chai.  

A few years later when Wu Zixu was on a diplomatic mission in another state, he was framed up and accused of treason; hence, he was forced to commit suicide, under the command of King Fu Chai. 

After Wu Zixu’s death, Sun Tzu disappeared as well.

In some historical documents, Sun Tzu lived in seclusion, while in others he was sentenced to death by King Fu Chai during the same time.

However, it was clear that Sun Tzu had never left the Kingdom Wu, the country that he had served and contributed, the place that he met and buried his best friend.  

Sun Tzu reorganized and wrote many military articles during his seclusion time, yet the famous book Art of War was the only one preserved and disseminated in the history of China. 

Only about ten years after Wu Zixu’s death and Sun Tzu’s departure, Gou Jian the King of Yue led his army attacked the Kingdom Wu and achieved huge success. 

King Fu Chai committed suicide, and the former strong Kingdom Wu got perished for good. 

Unearthed Sword of Gou Jian the King of Yue — Hubei Museum