Emperor Yang of Sui — Controversial Monarch with Achievements and Destructions
Yang Guang (569 — 618), Emperor Yang of Sui, was one of the most controversial emperors in the history of China.
His father left him a wealthy and unified Sui Empire with nearly 50 million populations, and enough food that was able to support the whole empire for about 60 years, as well as a peaceful environment on the border and a good reputation among civilians.
As a very talented monarch that had implemented many advanced policies, together with his smartness in both military and strategy, the Sui Dynasty’s perdition sounds not quite reasonable.
But Yang Guang did bury the prosperous empire and got assassinated by one of his generals, within 14 years.
His achievements were as exceptional as the destruction.
Restored Main Building Complex of the Ziwei Palace Constructed under Command of Yang Guang, Photo from the Official site of Luoyang.
Perfect Prince Yang Guang With Exceptional Achievements
When Yang Guang was born into a noble family of the previous Northern Kingdom Zhou, his father Yang Jian was serving there as the general and then regent, and his mother was the famous and noble Dugu Jialuo (or Qieluo).
Years later, his father snatched the throne and established the Sui Dynasty.
Afterward, Guang’s older brother Yong became crown prince, while Guang was nominated as the marshal, who then made great contributions in defeating kingdoms in southern China and the Turkic Khaganate.
Copper Mirror of the Sui Dynasty — Shaoxing Museum (Photo by Dongmaiying)
Besides his military achievements, Yang Guang was also quite handsome and artistic; dozens of his excellent poems are showing the world his talent.
After prince Yang Guang led Sui’s army and defeated the biggest kingdom in the south, he stayed there to manage those places and tried his best to blend in.
He married a noble girl from a powerful clan there, the descendant of King Xiao Yan, and made many friends with other local powerful clans.
Soon, people in the south stopped rebelling and respected the Sui Empire as their new country.
Hence, Yang Guang became the representative of the new landlord class of the south, while his older brother, the crown prince Yong, represented the powerful aristocracies from the north.
Unearthed Crown of Yang Guang’s Queen — Yangzhou Museum (Photo by Xin Shui Ling)
Framing Up of His Big Brother and Gaining of the Throne
What's more, Yang Guang was smart enough to know exactly how to please his exceptional parents.
His father Yang Jian, the Emperor Wen of Sui, advocated frugality and lived a very simple life.
So Yang Guang never wore fancy clothes or jewelry and was always polite and modest, while his older brother, the crown prince, was enjoying a luxurious lifestyle.
Yang Guang’s mother Queen Dugu was a sincere worshiper of monogamous, so Guang only spent time with his wife.
The crown prince, however, made many concubines pregnant, while his wife was desolated and died out of a sudden.
Silver Lotus Glass Bottle of the Sui Dynasty — Dingzhou Museum (Photo by Dongmaiying)
Moreover, Yang Guang did quite a good job on political work, achieved excellent military successes, and been consistently framing up his big brother in front of their parents.
All of these reasons combined, his parents finally banished their first son and nominated Yang Guang as the new crown prince of the Sui Dynasty.
After his father passed away, Yang Guang ascended to the throne and forced his big brother to commit suicide.
Guang's other brothers and nephews who may threaten his throne were either murdered or grounded to death.
Portrait of Emperor Yang of Sui, by Artist Yan Liben (601 — 673) — Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
Imperial Examination and Intense Challenge to Aristocracy
Yang Guang’s father left him a huge and prosperous kingdom with stable borders, however, as well as many powerful clans, especially those used to support his late older brother Yong.
The former hundreds of years of chaos prior to the Sui Empire formed the System of the Dominant Family.
Those aristocrats still obtained paramount power that could flourish or perish a kingdom, and Yang Guang’s father snatching the throne from the former king was a successful example.
Therefore, Yang Guang tried his best to take power back from those aristocratic clans.
Gilding Handle of Sui — Shaanxi Archeology Institute (Photo by Dongmaiying)
Consequently, Yang Guang, the Emperor Yang of Sui, invented the famous Imperial Examination System, which was aimed at selecting officials based on their talent and ability through relatively fair tests, instead of their family origins.
It was not quite perfect in the beginning, however, it still strongly challenged the System of the Dominant Family that had been lasting for hundreds of years.
Moreover, Emperor Yang of Sui restored many colleges to make sure that more people could get educated.
The project that he started when he was still a prince was continued, which was regarding collecting and protecting valuable books.
Yang Guang’s continuous and great passion for books and education, along with his masterpieces, showed his genuine love of literature.
Ink Stone Unearthed from Mausoleum of Emperor Yang of Sui
— Capital Museum (Photo by Dongmaiying)
Constructing Large Scale Projects
Within a decade, except for those systematical innovations, Yang Guang also constructed a series of huge projects that involved millions of laborers.
He commanded to construct and move of Sui's capital to Luoyang city, which was proven to be the right decision for political, economic, and military reasons.
The Grand Canal (2700km) was built, which connected many important places from the north to the south of China.
Great contributions to the development of the economy, transportation, and communication were made under his rule.
Meanwhile, a new law was published, which refined political systems and abolished some harsh penalties that were applied in his father’s later years.
Emperor Yang Guang's achievements were outstanding and extraordinary.
Part of the Grand Canal that was Built under Emperor Yang of Sui’s Governance
Miserable Lives of Civilians and Nationwide Rebellions
However, many impetuous policies were implemented at the same time, which in the end brought the wealthy and prosperous Sui Dynasty huge chaos and destruction.
Emperor Yang of Sui initiated some wars during his ruling period, which were insightful in strategy, but had started rashly, long before the empire was well prepared.
Therefore, some wars extended the territory of his empire, while others caused severe loss of soldiers and money.
Unearthed Clay Warrior of Sui — Shaanxi History Museum
Moreover, he had constructed many large-scale projects that were indeed beneficial to the following generations; but for people living in his time, the massive works were a complete waste of money and a total disaster.
Tens of thousands of people died in those endless heavy works and wars.
It proved that everything has a certain pace and shouldn’t be rushed, just like hundreds of years of work could not be finished within a decade.
Ordinary civilians were impossible to understand nor have the will to sacrifice for an emperor’s fancy political dream; they could only feel their pain and miserable lives.
Consequently, many peasant-revolting armies appeared and were widespread within a very short period, as well as troops of some powerful aristocratic clans that Yang Guang had spent his entire life fighting against.
13-Block Golden Jade Belt (Die Xie Jin Yu Dai) Unearthed From Mausoleum of Yang Guang, the Highest Format of Jade Belt for Emperor — Yangzhou Museum (Photo by Dongmaiying)
The Assassination of Emperor Yang of Sui and the End of the Sui Empire
In the end, Yang Guang, the former Emperor Yang of Sui, was not allowed to suicide with dignity.
Instead, he and his only alive son got assassinated by a betrayer from his army and were buried poorly in a crude coffin by his poor queen.
His queen, their only grandson, and her daughters were captured by those rebellions, and soon they escaped to Tujue, the regime that had complied with Sui Empire before.
Years later, the next dynasty defeated Tujue and took Yang Guang's queen and other family members back to the capital city.
Unearthed Gilding Copper Knockers (Fu Shou) From Mausoleum of Emperor Yang of Sui — Capital Museum (Photo by Dongmaiying)
A Glorious Person and A Failed Monarch
As a favorite child of his brilliant and powerful parents, Yang Guang was smart, caring, handsome, and polite.
As a crown prince of a glorious empire, he achieved outstanding military and political accomplishments.
As a talented scholar, he made great contributions to Chinese literature, by having collected and preserved books, and provided intelligent people with plenty of opportunities to be educated and get promoted. Many excellent and beautiful poems of his were left to the world as well.
As a politician, he implemented many insightful and beneficial political dreams and gained outstanding achievements. Objectively speaking, most of his important decisions were brilliant, though with very wrong timing and pace.
As a monarch who should have taken people’s well-being into serious consideration, however, Emperor Yang of Sui failed tragically.
"Vengeance" of Big Brother after Thousands of Years
Recently, the grave of Yang Guang the Emperor Yang of Sui was excavated by a labor contractor.
Surprisingly, the name of this contractor was Yang Yong, the same as Yang Guang’s big brother, whose throne and life were taken away by Guang’s conspiracy.
It feels like his big brother finally finished the “vengeance”, thousands of years later.
Relief Sculpture of Emperor Yang Guang of Sui Dynasty
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