Kublai Khan — Founder of the Yuan Dynasty
Kublai Khan (1215 — 1294), the Emperor Shizu of Yuan, was an intelligent politician and an exceptional militarist.
He was also the first nomadic emperor in the history of China as a unified national regime. Therefore, he played an essential role in integrating Mongol Culture into Han Culture and national amalgamation.
Portrait of Kublai Khan the Emperor Shizu of Yuan, By Artist Liu Guandao of the Yuan Dynasty — Taipei Palace Museum
Early Life As An Insightful Prince
As a grandson of Genghis Khan, Kublai Khan was brave, intelligent, and aggressive and had participated in many battles, the same as his father, uncles, and brothers.
However, unlike his other brothers, Kublai invited and hired many Han scholars to teach him literature, history, and Confucianism Classics.
After his big brother, Mongke (1209 — 1259), won the throne and became Khan of the Mongol Empire, Kublai was trusted with more power and fief.
Because of his familiarity and close relationship with the Han Chinese culture, Kublai was mainly in charge of the southern part of their kingdom and the invasion of the Song Dynasty.
As a genius militarist, he successfully expanded their realm southward.
During this period, Kublai married his beautiful favorite wife, Chabi, a noble girl that also contributed a lot to establishing the Yuan Dynasty.
Portrait of Queen Chabi, By Artist Liu Guandao of the Yuan Dynasty — Taipei Palace Museum
Contention Over the Throne and Establishment of the Yuan Dynasty
A few years later, Mongke Khan died in a battle invading a city of the Song Empire. Because of his sudden death, he left no command regarding who should be the next Khan.
At that time, Kublai was leading his army, fighting against another city of the Song Empire.
Soon, his favorite wife, Chabi, sent him an emergency message saying that his younger brother was deploying troops and was supported by some ministers to be the next Khan. She strongly suggested that Kublai return to Mongolia and claim the throne quickly.
Therefore, Kublai returned to a newly built city in Mongolia and announced himself as the Great Khan. His younger brother, firmly against Kublai’s acceptance of Han culture, soon claimed another Khan.
Afterward, nobles started to choose sides, and these two Mongol rulers kept fighting for their validity.
This Mongol civil war over the throne lasted for four years. Kublai won in the end, and his younger brother was imprisoned after.
Then Kublai Khan established the Yuan Dynasty in northern China, moved his capital to Beijing city, and he became the Emperor Shizu of Yuan.
Painting of Emperor Kublai Khan's Hunting (Yuan Shi Zu Chu Lie Tu), By Artist Liu Guandao of the Yuan Dynasty — Taipei Palace Museum
Emperor Kublai Khan and His Reign
A few years later, Kublai Khan, now Emperor Shizu of Yuan, led his army and conquered the Song Empire (1127 — 1279) in southern China.
After he unified the nation, he thought highly of Confucianism, inherited many officials and political systems of Song, and divided the whole country into some provinces.
This Province System that he invented has been applied till today.
His government built many posthouses, encouraged agriculture, and refined the transportation system. He also applied a religious freedom policy that peacefully allowed all religions to exist during his ruling period.
Emperor Kublai was criticized for having initiated many invasive wars and slaughtered many lives in his early military campaigns; however, his political talent, administration skills, respect for Confucianism, and freedom of religion were also praised.
He constructed a comprehensive administrative system and laid a solid foundation for his enormous empire.
Banknote and Its Pringting Plate of the Yuan Dynasty — Tokyo Currency Museum (Photo by PHGCOM)
Dilemmas in Emperor Kublai's Late Years
In Emperor Kublai's 60s, his beloved queen Chabi passed away, which was a huge heartbreak for him.
The first son of Kublai and Chabi was named Jingim, the crown prince of the Yuan Empire.
Jingim was talented, brave, and an expert in Confucianism, who had been highly appreciated and loved by his brilliant parents.
In Kublai's late years, a minister tried to frame up the crown prince. He pretended to act as a loyal official to Jingim and suggested that Kublai Khan abdicate the throne.
Blue Glaze Plate With Dragon Patterns of the Yuan Dynasty — Percival David Foundation of Chinese Art (Photo by Dongmaiying)
The scheme made Emperor Kublai quite angry and suspicious, so he commanded some competent officials to investigate if his beloved crown prince planned to seize power from him.
The crown prince Jingim was scared and upset; this kind young man didn’t want his father to doubt his love and loyalty.
Soon, he passed away because of fear and sadness.
Emperor Kublai was quite grieved. Later, he nominated a son of Jingim as the new crown prince, who a few years later ascended to the throne as Emperor Chengzong of Yuan (1265 — 1307) after Kublai passed away old and sick in 1294 at the age of 79.
Carved Red Lacquer Plate with Narcissus Pattern of the Yuan Dynasty — The Palace Museum (Photo by Dongmaiying)
Frequent Changes of Emperors
The Yuan Dynasty that Kublai built lasted for 97 years. In such a short period, however, it had reigned by 11 emperors.
Except that Kublai Khan was the emperor for 23 years, and the last emperor Toghon Temür reigned for 38 years, the rest of the emperors ruled for concise terms.
There were many contentions among the ruling class over the throne since the inherent system was not well established.
After Genghis Khan passed away, his sons fought for the throne; Kublai Khan also had to win the throne through wars against his brother.
Kublai's grandson, the Emperor Chengzong of Yuan, passed away without an heir, which led to another round of contentions.
Worse, some emperors were assassinated very soon after becoming monarchs. Those instability and constant changes were important reasons for the future decline of the Yuan Dynasty.
Silver Wine Cup (Cha Bei) by Craftsman Zhu Bishan of the Yuan Dynasty — Palace Museum (Photo by Dongmaiying)
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