Tragic & Epic Ending of Song Dynasty in the History of China
In the last decades of the Song Dynasty, they successfully got back some of their lost cities.
In the year 1234, Empire Song allied Genghis Khan, finally defeated and perished the nomadic Kingdom Jin, which had captured their emperors and extensively destroyed and occupied many places in northern China.
Now, Empire Song finally finished their revenge.
Rising of the New Enemy - Genghis Khan and His Empire
However, only one year later, the Mongol Empire started to invade the Song Empire.
Song’s soldiers and civilians were quite loyal and determined, together they bravely fought against Genghis Khan’s army for decades.
Unfortunately, when the aggressive, strong Mongolia troop was invading, and Song’s soldiers intensely fought back, Song Empire experienced two incapable and fatuous emperors.
Unqualified monarchs always were surrounded by greedy and ridiculous ministers; therefore, some extremely stupid and timid people obtained more power during that period.
From the year 1235 to 1264 in the history of China, wars between Song and Mongol Empire never stopped; though a powerful, treacherous person named Jia already represented the emperor of Song signed an unfair treaty, including respecting Mongolia’s Khan as monarch and providing large numbers of tribute each year.
Each empire occupied half of China and kept fighting, both had won and fail for several times.
There were many brave and talented generals on each side, as well as political conspiracies.
The balance started to decline in the year 1264, when the king the Mongol Empire, the Kublai Khan, defeated all of his political enemies. He put entire Mongolia under his control and started to stop the massacre policy.
On the other side, the Song Empire’s emperor was enjoying life with hundreds of beautiful women, while letting the treacherous prime minister Jia to be in charge, who already expelled or murdered many loyal and integrity marshals because of his greedy desire for power.
Epic Wars in Protecting the City Xiangyang
In the year 1267, Kublai Khan led his troop started to invade a city with extremely military importance, which was the last important gate to the Empire Song geographically.
Kublai led over 170, 000 soldiers and lots of his talented generals himself, and invested half of his kingdom’s income in this war, to take over this city named Xiangyang and another important one nearby named Fancheng.
Kublai’s army besieged those two cities and cut off all their possible rescue channels. Every soldier on each side fought bravely in countless intense battles.
Ironically, almost three years later, the current emperor of the Empire Song was just informed that his important gate cities were being attacked by the aggressive Mongolia Army.
Finally, the Song Empire tried to send reinforcements, eight times, but all were defeated.
The war of fighting over those two cities had lasted for six years, about 400, 000 soldiers were sacrificed or injured in this big war.
The intensity and cruelness of the countless battles in this war could be seen by those astonishing numbers.
Fall of the City Fancheng - Cruel Slaughter and Sacrifices
In the year 1273, Kublai put his army together, cut off the connection between those two cities, and concentrated his fire to the smaller city Fancheng.
When the city wall was broke down after many brave and fierce battles, Song’s commander of Fancheng committed suicide.
Hundreds of his remaining warriors continued to fight in streets until they were all covered by countless scars and then jumped into big fires.
In the end, the Mongolia army slaughtered everyone in the city.
Losing of Important Military Site Xiangyang
Now, Xiangyang was an isolated city, with no reinforcements nor further resources.
But the commander Lv still kept fighting, he even torn apart and burnt his house to keep warm; he also killed most of his former colleagues who tried to persuade him to surrender.
Then Kublai sent another intelligent general to talk to Lv, saying that six years of fierce wars were all that Lv could do. Kublai promised that if Lv surrender, he would be assigned a high position and all the people in the Xiangyang city would be well protected.
Additionally, the treacherous minister Jia fooled the emperor of the Song Empire and didn’t send any reinforcement for a long time.
In the end, Lv opened the gate of Xiangyang and complied with Kublai Khan.
Lv soon was nominated as a powerful general by Kublai and helped him persuade many of the Song Empire’s other generals to surrender afterward.
Huge Sacrifices and the Tragic, Epic Ending of Song Dynasty
In the following six years after these two gate cities were taken by Kublai, the Empire Song kept losing lands dramatically.
Minister Jia was forced to lead Song’s army to defend the kingdom, since he continually bragged about himself in the government, saying that he was an exceptional commander in the history of China.
However, he escaped in the battlefront because of cowardice and left 130, 000 fine soldiers of the Song Empire with no commander and necessary resources in the battlefield, which caused a huge loss for Song again.
Four years later, Song’s last emperor and his people retreated to a mountain next to a sea in the south of the Chinese mainland.
They encountered an intensive final battle, but failed; the last 100, 000 of the Song Empire’s loyal generals, soldiers and civilians all sacrificed or committed suicide.
The last emperor of Song, a faithful minister, and around 800 royal family members jumped into the sea and committed suicide.
After that final war, large numbers of bodies were floating in the sea, telling the epic, tragic end of the Song Dynasty in the history of China.
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