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Tianqi Emperor Zhu Youjiao — An Excellent Carpenter Monarch

Zhu Youjiao (1605 — 1627), respected as Tianqi Emperor or Emperor Xizong of Ming, was a controversial monarch of the Ming Dynasty.

Since the Ming Empire had declined during his grandfather Wanli Emperor’s ruling period, Zhu Youjiao was believed to have governed it quite well. 

Meanwhile, many other people criticized him for allowing eunuchs to manipulate politics and persecuting decent officials, and the partial conflict became quite intense under his reign. 

As for the times saved by asking eunuchs to do daily administrative work for him, the Tianqi Emperor used them to work diligently on his carpenter art. 

He was one of the most remarkable carpenters in the history of China, who was quite an expert in designing big projects and carving exquisite decorations.

Portrait of Tianqi Emperor Zhu Youjiao, By Court Artist of the Ming Dynasty

Portrait of Tianqi Emperor Zhu Youjiao, By Court Artist of the Ming Dynasty — Taipei Palace Museum

Unappreciated Prince Zhu Youjiao and His Enthronement

Zhu Youjiao’s grandfather, the Wanli Emperor, had once slept with an imperial maid, who gave birth to his first baby boy named Zhu Changluo (1582 — 1620).

Wanli Emperor never liked Zhu Changluo and spent 15 years trying to nominate his favorite son as the heir, but failed. 

During this period, Zhu Changluo and his son Zhu Youjiao had to stay extremely cautious and constantly experienced the Wanli Emperor’s indifference, even disdain, from time to time. 

Under the great support of his powerful grandmother and many officials, Zhu Changluo finally ascended to the throne when he was 38. 

Gilding Belt Decoration (Tao Huan) of Wanli Emperor Decorated with Gems

Gilding Belt Decoration (Tao Huan) of Wanli Emperor Decorated with Gems — National Museum of China (Photo by Dongmaiying)

However, Zhu Changluo, the Taichang Emperor or Emperor Guangzong of Ming, passed away only one month after his enthronement. 

Afterward, Zhu Youjiao became the Tianqi Emperor when he was 15, taking over an empire with partial conflicts and a strong enemy.

The political conflict among different parties in his grandfather's ruling period was among officials; however, under the Tianqi Emperor's reign, it changed to disputes between some officials against his favorite eunuch.

Ivory Tablet (Hu Ban) that Higher Rank Officials Hold When they Met with the Emperors in the Ming Dynasty

Ivory Tablet (Hu Ban) that Higher Rank Officials Hold When they Met with the Emperors in the Ming Dynasty — Ningxia Museum (Photo by Dongmaiying)

Tianqi Emperor's Controversial Reign

At the beginning of the Tianqi Emperor's ruling period, integrity officials still had advantages.


Many decent people were nominated for the appropriate positions, such as General Sun Chengzong

He also cleared exceptional minister Zhang Juzheng's name and recovered his reputation. 

Three years later, however, powerful eunuch Wei Zhongxian and his lover Ke, also Zhu Youjiao's wet nurse, framed up and executed those opponent officials and possessed more and more power. 

Many exceptional generals who were capable of protecting the Ming Empire from perishing were sentenced to death. 

Whoever didn't comply with Wei was demoted or executed, regardless of whether they were contributive and loyal. 

This couple also plundered large numbers of treasures from civilians.

Besides, the wet nurse also murdered many of the Tianqi Emperor's babies, only because those babies' mothers didn't follow her orders.


Then she kept sending the emperor with beautiful women who complied with her. 

Gold Ingot Especially Offered to Princes During Tianqi Emperor's Reign

Gold Ingot Especially Offered to Princes During Tianqi Emperor's Reign — National Museum of China

A Remarkable Architect and An Extraordinary Carpenter

Tianqi Emperor fully trusted Eunuch Wei with the daily administrative works of the Ming Empire and dedicated his entire life to being a great architect and an extraordinary carpenter.

He was a genius artist: from spectacular buildings to tiny models, from design drafts to carving and painting, Tianqi mastered them all.

He redesigned and mended broken buildings inside his royal palace, the Forbidden City, and did an excellent job. 

He made his bed, furniture, and even a beautiful garden full of exquisite mechanisms.

He would tear down those large architectures that occupied significant space once they were completed.

Tianqi Emperor would have his servants anonymously put smaller handicrafts that he made on the market. His masterpieces were always sold as the most expensive and valuable products.

Despite his monarch status, he was widely considered the second most exceptional carpenter artist in the history of China. 

Unfortunately, most of his masterpieces did not survive after the Ming Dynasty ended.

Colored Glaze Lion Renovated During Tianqi Emperor's Reign

Colored Glaze Lion Renovated During Tianqi Emperor's Reign, Used As Mythical, Fortunate Animal Guarding in Front of Temples — Palace Museum

A Destructive and Mysterious Explosion

In the sixth year of his rule, an extremely weird and mysterious explosion happened in the capital city, widely considered a warning of the Tianqi Emperor being a horrible monarch. 

Many extreme natural phenomena had appeared the year before this mysterious explosion, including severe drought and cold, red and purple clouds in the sky, etc.

Days before the explosion, people saw colorful and black clouds and heard unexplainable music; some statues of the God of Fire also shook intensely.

On that explosion day, a colossal fireball rushed out into the sky and exploded; with a shocking blare, dust, cracks, blood, and pieces of body parts were spreading, along with countless cries and screams.

The Tianqi Emperor’s crown prince died in this explosion, as did more than 20,000 other people. 

The mysterious explosion in the Ming Dynasty cannot be explained by poor ammunition management or earthquakes.

The most bizarre thing was that all the dead were naked; their clothes and jewelry were blown to a mountain near the capital city.

Colored Glaze Dragon Chiwen that was Widely used on House Ridge of the Ming Dynasty

Colored Glaze Dragon Chiwen that was Widely used on House Ridge of the Ming Dynasty, A Mythical Animal that Can Protect People From Fire — Jiexiu Museum (Photo by Dongmaiying)

Sudden Death of the Tianqi Emperor

This mysterious disaster made the Tianqi Emperor believe he was a horrible monarch, so he wrote and published an article of self-criticizing and tried to make up his mind to be a better emperor. 

However, he only wrote it down and didn’t change anything.

The same year after the explosion, flood and drought disasters happened in different places in China, while countless civilians suffered from poverty and starvation.

The following year, when the Tianqi Emperor was drinking wine with his close eunuchs in a boat, a gust of wind overthrew him into the lake; he got scared and passed away several months later. 

Porcelain Censer Produced During Tianqi Emperor's Reign

Porcelain Censer Produced During Tianqi Emperor's Reign — The British Museum

Beautiful and Smart Queen Zhang

Tianqi Emperor's wife, Zhang Yan (1606 — 1644), was a gorgeous and intelligent woman selected as queen from 5,000 pretty girls. 

Her stunningly gorgeous appearance impressed the emperor and made him fall in love with her at first sight.

Unfortunately, her baby was aborted by the emperor's evil wet nurse Ke using poison because Zhang Yan refused to comply with Ke.

Zhang Yan was outrageous and sad and started to plan her vengeance.

She was the only one that Tianqi Emperor loved and trusted, other than that powerful Eunuch Wei and the wet nurse Ke. 

Zhang Yan had tried several times to persuade the Tianqi Emperor to trust loyal and righteous officials and generals instead of that greedy couple, but her husband never listened. 

Unearthed Phoenix Crown of Queen Xiaoduan (the Queen of Emperor Wanli) of the Ming Dynasty

Phoenix Crown of Wanli Emperor's Queen Xiaoduan — National Museum of China (Photo by Dongmiying)

The Decline of the Ming Dynasty

After the Tianqi Emperor almost drowned to death, he was sick in bed with no sons. 

The eunuch and wet nurse then planned to find another baby to ascend to the throne; that way, they could be in charge for another few decades.

Surprisingly, the Tianqi Emperor even agreed with this ridiculous idea.

Queen Zhang Yan was firmly against this decision, considering both the Ming Empire and her benefit.  

So she spent a long time trying to persuade her husband to give the throne to his 16-year-old younger brother Zhu Youjian instead of an unknown baby who might be a puppet emperor forever. 

Exquisite Gold Hairpin (Zan) of the Ming Dynasty

Exquisite Gold Hairpin (Zan) of the Ming Dynasty — Jiangxi Museum (Photo by Dongmaiying)

Zhu Youjian, the only brother of the Tianqi Emperor, didn’t want to ascend to the throne.


But he agreed after his brother and Queen Zhang Yan’s analysis and persuasion.

Tianqi Emperor Zhu Youjiao, the artistic monarch, passed away when he was only 22 years old.


He left with his brother a chaotic kingdom with many treacherous but powerful officials, a powerful nomadic enemy Manchu, and some large-scale uprisings. 

His beautiful and decent wife Zhang Yan, later respected as Empress Yi’an, committed suicide with honor before the Ming Dynasty perished 17 years after Tianqi Emperor’s death. 

Unearthed Gold Tablet, Carved with the Testament of General Mu Ying the King of Qianning

Gold Tablet of General Mu Rui, Carved with the Testament of His Ancestor General Mu Ying (1344 — 1392), Who Contributed Significantly in the Establishment of the Ming Dynasty — Nanjing Museum (Photo by Dongmaiying)
The grandson and great-grandson of Mu Rui, a few decades later, sacrificed their lives in protecting the last emperor of the Ming Empire.

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